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Table of Contents [[Web Reference]]
[[A2 5.25 Drives]]
[[A2 3.5 Drives]]
== 5.25 Floppy Disk Drives - 20 Pin IDC ==
=== Apple Disk ][ Drive A2M0003 / A2M0004 ===
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller or compatible/clone 20 pin IDC controller card. 
<A2Txt>//c, IIgs, and IIc Plus, IIgs ROM 3, LC Slot //e Card use:</A2Txt> See the section on Interfacing Information for more details. Using this drive with a IIgs would also require the controller card be installed internally, usually Slot 6 and that slot set via the Control Panel to 'Your Card' instead of 'Disk Port'.
<A2Txt>Storage:</A2Txt> The Drive is compatible with ProDOS, DOS 3.3, Apple Pascal 1.2/1.3 & Apple CP/M It is a single sided,double density drive,It stores 143 K of information, or 560 Sectors of DOS 3.3, 280 ProDOS Blocks. This is a Apple GCR Device only and can not read any other formats even with additional software or hardware.
<A2Txt>Technical Specifications:</A2Txt> The Disk ][ and many similar third party / clones use a Shugart mechanism, and the analog card is an Apple designed carda and in the case of non-Apple drives, either a blatant clone or similar design. It can be adapted to a DB-19 but still falls under all the same usage restrictions as any other DB-19 drive and unless the conversion cable is equipped with an additional DB-19 connector the drive can only be used as the last device on a system as nothing else can attach to it.
The Drive is compatible with ProDOS, DOS 3.3, Apple Pascal 1.2/1.3 & Apple CP/M It is a single sided, double density drive, It stores 143 K of information on 35 tracks, or 560 Sectors of DOS 3.3, 280 ProDOS Blocks. This is an Apple GCR Device only and can not read any other formats even with additional software or hardware.
Common problems occurred using this device:
Heads need cleaned
Speed Adjustment gets slow/faster.
Plugged into controller card backwards or improperly aligned pins when plugged in.
=== MicroSci A2 / A20 / A80 ===
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller, compatible or the MicroSci C2 controller card. 
The MicroSci A2 and A20 are standard 143K / 40 track drives, Disk ][ compatible. The A80 is a high density also supports a faster access rate. It stores data in an 80 track format.
=== Vista Solo / Quartet / V1200 ===
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller, compatible or the Vista Disk controller card. 
Vista Solo is a 143K / 35/40 track drive.
Vista Quartet is a 640K / dual double sided solution.
Vista V1200 is a high density, 80 track, double sided 5 disk 'changer'. It holds 5 disks in a magazine that is loaded in place of the disk.
=== Rana Systems Elite I, II, & III ===
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller, compatible or the Vista Disk controller card. 
Rana Elite I - 35/40 Track 143K standard, 160K in 'extended' format, (40 track)
Rana Elite II - 35/40 & 80 Track, single sided. 143K, 160K, 320K
Rana Elite III - 34/40 7 80 Track, double sided. 143K, 160K, 320K & 640K
=== Concorde C-111 / 112 ===
The Concorde C-111 is a standard Disk ][ Compatible 35/40 track, 143K/163K drive where as the C-112 is a double sided drive that offers double the capacity of the C-111.
=== Other 5.25" 20 Pin IDC Drives ===
Examples of other manufactures of drives are Asuki, Maple, Franklin, Quentin Research, 'Super5'..
Table of Contents [[Web Reference]]
== 5.25 Floppy Disk Drives - 19 Pin ==
=== AppleDisk 5.25 (A9M0107) ===
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, IIgs, Laser 128, or Franklin Ace 500 and any compatibles or derivatives of these.
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 19 Pin via Inbuilt SmartPort or Apple 5.25" Disk Controller
The Platinum colored AppleDisk 5.25 aka Apple 5.25 drive is the one universal solution for all Apple II systems and most clones/compatibles. Attached via either the AppleDisk 5.25"  controller or SmartPort/Drive Port connectors.  This drive is compatible across the entire line. Be sure the model number is A9M0107 as this drive is identical to the UniDisk 5.25" in styling, the case color is the difference.  The UniDisk 5.25" is beige colored drive.
There are a few third party vendors who made a disk drive that was compatible with the AppleDisk 5.25", some of them are Applied Engineering and American Micro Research. Not all of their products would be, but the later model half height ones are and by this time it was seemingly the same drive that all the vendors were offering.
=== Apple UniDisk 5.25 (A9M0104) ===
The UniDisk 5.25" disk drive is compatible with all Apple II models except the ROM 03 IIgs, IIc Plus and LC //e Card. These require the AppleDisk 5.25 (A9M0107) or compatible drives. 
=== Apple DuoDisk 5.25 (A9M0108) ===
The DuoDisk 5.25" disk drive is compatible with all Apple II models except the ROM 03 IIgs, IIc Plus and LC //e Card.  These require the AppleDisk 5.25 or compatible drives. Using the DuoDisk with a //c will result in only Drive 1 ever being used as Drive 2 is not accessible since the //c is really using drive the first 5.25" drive on the drive port / daisy chain as it's second 5.25" drive.
=== Apple UniFile / DuoFile 5.25 (A9M0xxx) ===
The Apple UniFile and DuoFile were to be a storage solution based on the Apple FileWare system which utilized Apple's Twiggy Drive. The Twiggy drive is a 640K double sided drive with horizontally opposed head placement allowing both read/write heads to function simultaneously for more efficient throughput.
=== Apple Uni/Duo Drive 'system' proposal ===
The Uni/Duo drive 'system' was thought out to be compatible with any Apple computer system shipping by utilizing all the same connector on the back of the drive for both single and double drive units. This is evidenced by the DuoDisk 5.25" having the 25 pin connector, the Apple /// Plus having the same 25 pin connector and the original concept UniDisk 5.25" each having two 25 pin connectors. As well, the external FileWare drives were to have the 25 pin connector. This way you could use any floppy drive with any system that a cable was provided for.
DB-19 Connector version.
Drives that fall into this category are the Apple DuoDisk, Apple UniDisk 5.25", AppleDisk 5.25", any converted 20 Pin drives and many drives offered by other vendors with a DB 19 cable and daisy chain pass through port. The DuoDisk does not offer the pass through port because it is a 2 drive unit and since the 5.25" is always the last device on a drive chain, it is not needed.
== IIc Plus, IIgs ROM 3, LC Slot //e Card & 5.25" Drives ==
Smartport drive information & why some 5.25" drives don't work.
The reason drives may not work with the IIgs ROM 03, IIc Plus or Macintosh LC //e emulator card is because around the introduction of the Apple IIc Plus, Apple changed the Smartport protocol to where each device hooked to it, (be it 5.25" drive, 3.5" drive or a Smartport compatible hard disk) needs an ID Byte. The UniDisk 5.25", DuoDisk and most 3rd party drives DO NOT CONTAIN this needed ID Byte rendering such drives unusable with the newer Smartport protocol.
The difference is due to the way Apple implemented the Write Protect circuit on their own disk drives. The Apple design integrates the Stepper Motor Phase 2 in the write protect status detection where as many third party drive manufactures used a simple ground to complete the circuit. Incompatible drives on these models will just spin at startup, the recalibration will not take place. However placing a disk into the drive enough to pass the Write Protect switch, or a write protected disk, before turning on the computer will allow the drive to boot. Thus it is possible to use incompatible third party drives with the IIc Plus or ROM 3 in a constant write protected state.
=== 20 Pin drives: Converting to 19 pin ===
The 20 Pin Disk ][, or compatible, when combined with a 19 pin adapter or replacement cable, can be used with a //c or IIgs ROM 00 or 01 via the Smart Port/Drive Port connector, or at the end of the daisy chain as the last 5.25"/Last device on the chain. When it is used with the //c it is assigned to Slot 6, Drive 2. When used with a IIgs it will be Slot 6, Drive 1 or 2 depending on the position it is connected on the Daisy Chain.
=== Apple Disk ][ Converting to 19 pin. Addendum ===
In some configurations the Apple Disk ][ Drive also works when the cable is changed to a 19 pin cable. This is dependent on variations of the Analog Card in the Disk ][ and varies widely. YMMV.
== Interfacing Information ==
=== Daisy Chain explained ===
The term daisy chain is where each device in a system plugs into the previous device, thus eliminating the need for additional interfaces. Each device contains a connector to plug the next one in. On the back of the Apple UniDisk 5.25", AppleDisk 5.25", Apple UniDisk 5.25" and the AppleDisk 3.5" is a DB-19 Connector identical to the one that the drive is plugged into. In a drive chain on an Apple II Computer, ANY 3.5" device(s) must always come before any 5.25" device(s)
Other things that use daisy chaining on the Apple are SCSI hard disks and AppleTalk (LocalTalk) networking and Ethernet networking. Although Ethernet and AppleTalk to don't quite 'look' the same, it's still a daisy chain system.
=== 35 vs. 40 or more tracks ===
The default capacity on Apple 5.25" DSDD floppy storage is 35 tracks, 16 sectors per track.  Some drives, including most of what Apple offers are actually capable of 40 tracks per inch.  There are mods for DOS 3.3 to make it format up to 40 tracks, but keep in mind, these disks may not work in another drive. If there is a problem it is usually within the last 5 tracks, the additional ones, that can't be read as they are beyond the normal range. However this is usually only the earliest 5.25" drives as the industry standard was 40 tracks per inch.  For clarification, the track layout on all drives is identical, the 'extras' are added to the end, the spacing, layout, beginning on the disk, etc- does not change.
=== 13 vs. 16 Sectors per Track ===
When the Apple Disk ][ was first offered it was 13 sectors per track. Shortly after introduction this was increased to 16 sectors.  Apple used to provide little round stickers that had an Apple logo silhouette in red with a '16' on white type. What Apple should have actually done was provided the same sticker with a '13' for those few disks you would have left over, not for all the new ones you were going to format.
=== DOS 3.3 Maximum Capacity ===
The largest volume size Apple DOS 3.3 can handle without any modification what so ever is 400K. The VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) directly supports up to 400K of tracks/sectors in a 32 sector per track maxim
1) A Modification may be necessary for the DuoDisk to work on a IIgs
2) As noted, certain IIc Plus+ units seem to work with any version of the 19 Pin 5.25 drive, and do not require the 'platinum drive'
=== 720K ProDOS Volumes ===
If you have an DSDD (Double Density) 3.5" MFM drive via a PC Transporter, Blue Disk or Urphi controller, you can format 720K disks as ProDOS volumes. These disks CAN NOT be read in ANYTHING that is 800K only with exception of an AppleDisk 3.5" hooked up to a PC Transporter. If it's an Apple or compatible 800K drive hooked to ANYTHING other than a PC transporter you CAN NOT READ THESE 720K DISKS.  They are MFM. These drives can NOT do MFM with exception of the PC Transporter is doing something specific since it has a hybrid version of the IWM integrated with it.
Additional IWM/technical information:
== 3.5" Floppy Drives ==
Apple made two different 3.5" drives for the Apple II, the AppleDisk 3.5" and the UniDisk 3.5". The AppleDisk 3.5" is Apple Platinum colored and was introduced along with the Apple IIgs. With exception of the //c and the Liron card, it is compatible where a 3.5" drive is supported on the Apple II.
=== AppleDisk 3.5 (A9M0106) ===
This is an external Apple 800K DSDD 3.5" GCR . It can also read 400K disks. Drive. See the compatibility chart after the UniDisk 3.5" information for more detail.
=== Apple UniDisk 3.5 (A2M2053) ===
This is an External Apple 800K DSDD 3.5". Compatibility with the following computers is as follows:
The UniDisk 3.5" can be used on the following Apple II Systems, and it's requirements are listed with it.
<A2Txt>Apple ][, ][ Plus</A2Txt> : Requires 64K, ProDOS and an Apple 3.5" drive controller.
<A2Txt>Apple //e:</A2Txt> Requires an Apple 3.5" controller or Apple SuperDrive controller. The SuperDrive controller requires an Enhanced //e
<A2Txt>Apple //c:</A2Txt> Requires a ROM upgrade in older //c units to be installed if it's not already installed. If the model # on the //c is A2S4000 then it may not have the ROM installed. To find out, turn on the computer and from BASIC, (the ] prompt) type 'PR#7'. If the EXTERNAL 5.25" drive 'boots' then it needs the ROM upgrade. IF the computer says 'AppleTalk offline' it has the ROM installed. If no external drive is installed and no AppleTalk message appears you still need the newer ROM.
'''The UniDisk 3.5" drive is NOT COMPATIBLE with the Laser Universal Disk Controller. It will do Bad Things when it's plugged in. Do Not Try It.'''
Another way is to turn on the computer, when you can see the monitor hold down both the Open and Closed Apple keys. (Opposite sides of the spacebar) and hit CTRL and RESET. If the computer goes into a checkerboard type pattern you have the new ROM installed. If the computer goes to an alternating vertical line pattern with a click between each alternation. (Turn up volume, on left side, under keyboard). You will need a ROM upgrade. The part # for this ROM upgrade is 342-0033.
<A2Txt>Apple IIc Plus:</A2Txt> Nothing additional is required to use the UniDisk 3.5" with an
Apple IIc Plus.
<A2Txt>Apple IIgs:</A2Txt> No additional hardware is required to use the UniDisk 3.5" with an Apple IIgs directly although you can use the UniDisk 3.5" with either an Apple 3.5" controller card or Apple SuperDrive controller in the slot of an Apple IIgs. The UniDisk normally plugs into the floppy port of the Apple IIgs.
The UniDisk is not the recommended 3.5" drive for use with an Apple IIgs although it will work fine for normal usage. It will be slower than using the recommended drive, the AppleDisk 3.5". It looks similar to the UniDisk 3.5" and is the same color as the Apple IIgs itself. Using a UniDisk on a IIgs while using any GS specific software that runs under GS/OS will require that a device driver be installed on the boot volume as well. The driver, titled 'UniDisk.3.5' can be found on the system disk set and be installed using the installer on the System Tools disk of System Disk 5.0.4 or the Installer disk of System 6.0. Using the UniDisk on the IIgs will also be slower than using the proper 3.5" drive and some disk based software from such groups as the FTA may simply not run.
<A2Txt>Apple //e Emulation Card:</A2Txt> No additional hardware is needed to use the UniDisk 3.5" with the Apple //e Emulation card. It simply plugs into the Floppy Port of the card, which is the larger plug on the two way cable supplied with the card.
=== Apple FDHD / SuperDrive 3.5 (G7287) ===
The FDHD ('FudHead') / SuperDrive was introduced for the Macintosh and is not an Apple II specific 3.5" drive but due to it's nature it is compatible where an AppleDisk 3.5" (A9M0106) would otherwise be appropriate and requires a separate controller card, the Apple II 3.5" Controller Card, Apple P/N A0076LL/A in order to function as a High Density drive on an Apple II. There is no solution for high density drives in any Apple II that does not have expansion slots with exception of the Mark Twain, prototype IIgs which has an on board SuperDrive controller.
=== Haba Systems HabaDisk ===
The HabaDisk is a 3.5" 320K drive that uses the Apple Disk ][ or compatible controller.
=== Amdek AmDisk I, III ===
Amdek, known more for monitors, also brought a 3" (3 inch) drive to market for the Apple II and Atari, for the Apple II it used a standard Disk ][ controller. The AmDisk I was replacement for the Disk ][. Down to the fact that if you want to use the back side of the disk you had to remove it and turn it over.
The AmDisk III was a 360K double sided drive system that was marketed for the Atari and IBM PC, it was supposed to come to the Apple II but never did.
== 3.5" Drive Compatibility Chart ==
There are 3 types of 3.5" drives for Apple Computers:
NOTE:Any of these drives with the exception of the UniDisk 3.5" can be used with the Laser Universal Disk controller installed in a slotted Apple II.
=== Apple //c ===
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
UniDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053
=== Apple IIc Plus ===
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
<A2Txt>Drive</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Manufacture</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Model No.</A2Txt>
UniDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287
AMR 800K|American Micro Research|ASA800K
The FDHD/SuperDrive will function as an AppleDisk 3.5" 800K drive only, when attached to the SmartPort on the IIc Plus.
=== Apple ][, ][+, //e (With Controller) ===
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
Drive|Manufacture|Model No.|Controller
Apple 400K|Apple Computer, Inc.|M130|UDC
Apple 800K External|Apple Computer, Inc.|M131|UDC
Apple UniDisk 3.5|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053| Liron, SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106| SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
AE 800K|Applied Engineering|AE800K|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
AE HD|Applied Engineering|AEHD|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
AMR 800K|American Micro Research|ASA800K|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
*Teac 720K MFM|Teac|235FN|Blue Disk, Urphi
*Teac 1.44MB MFM|Teac|235HF|Blue Disk, Urphi
Ehman 800K|Ehman Engineering|Garbage!|UDC
Laser 3.5"|Video Technology|Same Garbage as Ehman|UDC
Chinnon|Taiwanese Generic Clone |More Garbage|UDC
See the the section on [[Floppy Controllers]] for details on what these descriptions mean.
Apple ][ & ][+ support listed is with respect to electrical/mechanical needs. Additional software and memory is likely required. IE, AppleSoft ROM for the Apple ][, 64K system RAM and ProDOS. ProDOS 1.0 does run on 48K but you can't do much. The requirement was upped to 64K with later releases.
Some of these drives without eject buttons will require the constant use of a paper clip or software eject initiation where available. This applies to the Apple 400K, 800K and Ehman drives.
*The Teac reference can apply to most any 34 pin DSDD or DSHD MFM drive. MFM will provide 720K DD or 1.44MB HD and will NOT read 800K GCR disks. The MFM 720K volume will be a ProDOS volume. This will NOT be readable in any 800K drive either. Only the SuperDrive or AE HD 1.44 will read the 720K ProDOS volume, or any other 720K volume, period.  These can be used with the Blue Disk or Urphi controller only.
The FDHD/SuperDrive requires a separate controller card, the Apple II 3.5" Controller Card, Apple P/N A0076LL/A in order to function as a high density drive with an Apple //e. The FDHD Drive will function as a normal 800K (AppleDisk 3.5") when connected to the Apple Universal Controller or UDC.
The SuperDrive controller itself requires an Enhanced //e to function and therefore will not work with anything less.
=== Apple IIgs ===
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
<A2Txt>Drive</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Manufacture</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Model No.</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Controller</A2Txt>
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287
UniDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053
AMR 800K|American Micro Research|ASA800K
AE 3.5"(800K)|Applied Engineering|AE800K
AE 3.5" HD(1.44 Meg)|Applied Engineering|AEHD
AE 3.5" HD(1.6 Meg)|Applied Engineering|AEHD+
The FDHD/SuperDrive requires a separate controller card, the Apple II 3.5" Controller Card, Apple P/N A0076LL/A in order to be used as a High Density drive on a IIgs. The controller card will also handle 800K. The FDHD Drive will also function as a normal 800K (AppleDisk 3.5") when plugged in the back of the IIgs as opposed to being used with the controller installed.
=== Macintosh ===
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
<A2Txt>Drive</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Manufacture</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Model No.</A2Txt>
Apple 400K|Apple Computer, Inc.|M130
Apple 800K External|Apple Computer, Inc.|M131
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287
AMR 800K|American Micro Research |ASA800K
AE 3.5"(800K)|Applied Engineering|AE800K
Ehman 800K|Ehman Engineering|Garbage!
Laser 3.5"|Video Technology|Same Garbage as Ehman
Chinnon|Taiwanese Generic Clone |More Garbage

Revision as of 05:21, 10 September 2007

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