Difference between revisions of "Floppy Drives" - wiki.apple2.org

Difference between revisions of "Floppy Drives"

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Table of Contents [[Web Reference]]
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== Apple ][ Floppy Drive Reference ==
  
== 5.25 Floppy Disk Drives - 20 Pin IDC ==
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<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
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<A2Txt>Subsection</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Description</A2Txt>
 +
[[A2 5.25 Drives (20 Pin)]]|20 Pin - Internal Connected Drives
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[[A2 5.25 Drives (19 Pin)]]|19 Pin - External Connected Drives
 +
[[A2 3.5 Drives]]|Apple II Specific 3.5" Drives
 +
[[3.5 Drive Compatibility]]|Chart
 +
[[A2 Floppy Controllers]]|Internal Cards
 +
</tab>
  
=== Apple Disk ][ Drive A2M0003 / A2M0004 ===
 
  
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
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== Daisy Chain explained ==
  
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller or compatible/clone 20 pin IDC controller card.
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The term daisy chain is where each device in a system plugs into the previous device, thus eliminating the need for additional interfaces. Each device contains a connector to plug the next one in. On the back of the Apple UniDisk 5.25", AppleDisk 5.25", Apple UniDisk 3.5" and the AppleDisk 3.5" is a DB-19 Connector identical to the one that the drive is plugged into. In a drive chain on an Apple II Computer, ANY 3.5" device(s) must always come before any 5.25" device(s)
  
<A2Txt>//c, IIgs, and IIc Plus, IIgs ROM 3, LC Slot //e Card use:</A2Txt> See the section on Interfacing Information for more details. Using this drive with a IIgs would also require the controller card be installed internally, usually Slot 6 and that slot set via the Control Panel to 'Your Card' instead of 'Disk Port'.
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Other things that use daisy chaining on the Apple are SCSI hard disks and AppleTalk (LocalTalk) networking and Ethernet networking. Although Ethernet and AppleTalk to don't quite 'look' the same, it's still a daisy chain system.
  
<A2Txt>Storage:</A2Txt> The Drive is compatible with ProDOS, DOS 3.3, Apple Pascal 1.2/1.3 & Apple CP/M It is a single sided,double density drive,It stores 143 K of information, or 560 Sectors of DOS 3.3, 280 ProDOS Blocks. This is a Apple GCR Device only and can not read any other formats even with additional software or hardware.
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== 35 vs. 40 or more tracks ==
  
<A2Txt>Technical Specifications:</A2Txt> The Disk ][ and many similar third party / clones use a Shugart mechanism, and the analog card is an Apple designed carda and in the case of non-Apple drives, either a blatant clone or similar design. It can be adapted to a DB-19 but still falls under all the same usage restrictions as any other DB-19 drive and unless the conversion cable is equipped with an additional DB-19 connector the drive can only be used as the last device on a system as nothing else can attach to it.  
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The default capacity on Apple 5.25" DSDD floppy storage is 35 tracks, 16 sectors per track.  Some drives, including most of what Apple offers are actually capable of 48 tracks per inch.  There are mods for DOS 3.3 to make it format up to 40 tracks, but keep in mind, these disks may not work in another drive. If there is a problem it is usually within the last 5 tracks, the additional ones, that can't be read as they are beyond the normal range. However this is usually only the earliest 5.25" drives as the industry standard was 48 tracks per inch.  For clarification, the track layout on all drives is identical, the 'extras' are added to the end, the spacing, layout, beginning on the disk, etc- does not change.
  
The Drive is compatible with ProDOS, DOS 3.3, Apple Pascal 1.2/1.3 & Apple CP/M It is a single sided, double density drive, It stores 143 K of information on 35 tracks, or 560 Sectors of DOS 3.3, 280 ProDOS Blocks. This is an Apple GCR Device only and can not read any other formats even with additional software or hardware.
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== 13 vs. 16 Sectors per Track ==
  
Common problems occurred using this device:
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When the Apple Disk ][ was first offered it was 13 sectors per track. Shortly after introduction this was increased to 16 sectors. Apple used to provide little round stickers that had an Apple logo silhouette in red with a '16' on white type. What Apple should have actually done was provided the same sticker with a '13' for those few disks you would have left over, not for all the new ones you were going to format.  
Heads need cleaned
 
Speed Adjustment gets slow/faster.
 
Plugged into controller card backwards or improperly aligned pins when plugged in.
 
  
=== MicroSci A2 / A20 / A80 ===
 
  
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
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== DOS 3.3 Maximum Capacity ==
  
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller, compatible or the MicroSci C2 controller card.
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The largest volume size Apple DOS 3.3 can handle without any modification what so ever is 400K. The VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) directly supports up to 400K of tracks/sectors in a 32 sector per track maximum. This is what the Sider uses for a "Super Volume" and several of the popular DOS 3.3 on a 3.5" disk methods do.
  
The MicroSci A2 and A20 are standard 143K / 40 track drives, Disk ][ compatible. The A80 is a high density also supports a faster access rate. It stores data in an 80 track format.
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== 720K ProDOS Volumes ==
  
 +
If you have an DSDD (Double Density) 3.5" MFM drive via a PC Transporter, Blue Disk or Urphi controller, you can format 720K disks as ProDOS volumes. These disks CAN NOT be read in ANYTHING that is 800K only with exception of an AppleDisk 3.5" hooked up to a PC Transporter. If it's an Apple or compatible 800K drive hooked to ANYTHING other than a PC transporter you CAN NOT READ THESE 720K DISKS.  They are MFM. These drives can NOT do MFM with exception of the PC Transporter is doing something specific since it has a hybrid version of the IWM integrated with it.
  
=== Vista Solo / Quartet / V1200 ===
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== Blank Media 5.25" / 3.5" Disks ==
  
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
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=== Common Media use by disk size/capacity ===
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 +
Disk Size / Type|Capacity|Compatible With:
 +
5.25" DSDD|140K|Disk ][, DuoDisk, Disk //c, UniDisk 5.25"<br>AppleDisk 5.25" & Other 5.25" Drives
 +
3.5" SSDD|400K|Apple External 400K Drive on UDC / Laser 128
 +
3.5" DSDD|800K|AppleDisk 3.5", UniDisk 3.5", AE 3.5" Drive<br>AMR & Laser 3.5" Drive
 +
3.5" DSHD|1.44MB|Apple FDHDSuperDrive, AE 3.5" HD Drive
 +
3.5" DSHD|1.6MB|Applied Engineering HD+
 +
</tab>
  
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller, compatible or the Vista Disk controller card.
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=== Common Media use by Computer ===
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 +
Computer|Common Disk Type|Alternate / Note
 +
Apple ][+|5.25" DSDD|3.5" DSDD
 +
Apple //e|5.25" DSDD|3.5" DSDD, DSHD
 +
Apple //c|5.25" DSDD|3.5" DSDD
 +
Apple IIc Plus|3.5" DSDD|5.25" DSDD
 +
Apple IIgs|3.5" DSDD|5.25" DSDD, 3.5" DSHD
 +
</tab>
  
Vista Solo is a 143K / 35/40 track drive.  
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== Substituting DSHD (1.2MB or 1.44MB) for DSDD (360K or 720K/800K) media. '''DON'T'''! ==
Vista Quartet is a 640K / dual double sided solution.
 
Vista V1200 is a high density, 80 track, double sided 5 disk 'changer'. It holds 5 disks in a magazine that is loaded in place of the disk.
 
  
=== Rana Systems Elite I, II, & III ===
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DSHD (High Density) Disks SHOULD NOT BE SUBSTITUTED for DSDD (Double Density) Disks. In simple terms, the density (amount of) magnetic particles on the disk per inch is different for the two disks. That means that the disks are not 'optimized' for other than the format they were designed. While they may work, you WILL loose data, and most likely, WILL loose data over time. The proper disks can be found. You may have to mail order them, but they can be found. Again, you WILL loose data. Thats a promise. It's not a matter of it, but only when.
  
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, or IIgs
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== Other Media Formats ==
  
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 20 Pin IDC via the Apple Disk II Controller, compatible or the Vista Disk controller card. 
 
  
Rana Elite I - 35/40 Track 143K standard, 160K in 'extended' format, (40 track)
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QIC-80 34 pin tape backups are supported by the BlueDisk controller.
Rana Elite II - 35/40 & 80 Track, single sided. 143K, 160K, 320K
 
Rana Elite III - 34/40 7 80 Track, double sided. 143K, 160K, 320K & 640K
 
  
=== Concorde C-111 / 112 ===
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There were 8" controller cards made by several companies, 2 of the being Lobo Drives, and Sorrento Valley Associates. Storage on 8" disks in Apple format can be as much as 3 MB.
  
The Concorde C-111 is a standard Disk ][ Compatible 35/40 track, 143K/163K drive where as the C-112 is a double sided drive that offers double the capacity of the C-111.
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The AmDisk drive uses 3 (Three Inch) format floppy disks. These disks don't seem to be available anyplace.
  
=== Other 5.25" 20 Pin IDC Drives ===
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Rana, MicroSci and Kodak each made a type of High Density disk drive for use with any slotted Apple II. These drives use industry standard "AT" disks, or 5.25" DSHD disks for capacities up to 1.2 MB per disk.
  
Examples of other manufactures of drives are Asuki, Maple, Franklin, Quentin Research, 'Super5'..
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The MicroSci A80 and Rana Elite 3 drives require High Density disks.
  
Table of Contents [[Web Reference]]
 
  
== 5.25 Floppy Disk Drives - 19 Pin ==
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Additional IWM/technical information:
 +
http://www.stockly.com/forums/showthread.php?t=9
  
=== AppleDisk 5.25 (A9M0107) ===
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== Drive Head Cleaning & Alignment ==
  
<A2Txt>Compatibility:</A2Txt> ][, ][+, //e, IIgs, Laser 128, or Franklin Ace 500 and any compatibles or derivatives of these.  
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Clean drive heads make a huge difference in drive performance.  95% of problem drives can be fixed with cleaning the read/write head(s). Yes, 95%.  
  
<A2Txt>Interface:</A2Txt> 19 Pin via Inbuilt SmartPort or Apple 5.25" Disk Controller
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Before you whip out that cleaning disk and the alcohol, consider this. There is a pretty good chance that the heads on that drive you have right there have never been cleaned and as much, that the drive is probably at least 20 years old by now.  If a cleaning disk has not been used regularly it's not going to do much good. It may not even make a dent in the issue.  
  
The Platinum colored AppleDisk 5.25 aka Apple 5.25 drive is the one universal solution for all Apple II systems and most clones/compatibles. Attached via either the AppleDisk 5.25"  controller or SmartPort/Drive Port connectors.  This drive is compatible across the entire line. Be sure the model number is A9M0107 as this drive is identical to the UniDisk 5.25" in styling, the case color is the difference. The UniDisk 5.25" is beige colored drive.  
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The next sections you will find information of a general nature on cleaning the heads in various types of common drives. 5.25 in. drives will stand up to much more abuse and handling. 3.5 in. drive on the other hand are considerably more fragile.  
  
There are a few third party vendors who made a disk drive that was compatible with the AppleDisk 5.25", some of them are Applied Engineering and American Micro Research. Not all of their products would be, but the later model half height ones are and by this time it was seemingly the same drive that all the vendors were offering.  
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The methods covered here may seem extreme, but the end result is a squeaky clean drive head. Some purists may cringe at what they are about to read. From my personal experience, I've never killed a drive. Thats about as simple as I can put it.  
  
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=== Disk ][ / 5.25 Full Height Drives ===
  
=== Apple UniDisk 5.25 (A9M0104) ===
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[[Image:DiskIIInternalView.jpg]]
  
The UniDisk 5.25" disk drive is compatible with all Apple II models except the ROM 03 IIgs, IIc Plus and LC //e Card. These require the AppleDisk 5.25 (A9M0107) or compatible drives. 
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Cleaning the drive head on the Disk ][ and similar drives is actually very easy. The head assembly is very easy to reach, only "6 screws deep", and one connector. The image above is that of a Disk ][ drive with the cover removed. To remove the cover, remove the four screws on the bottom and slide the cover off the drive.  
  
=== Apple DuoDisk 5.25 (A9M0108) ===
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The PCB (Printed Circuit Board) you see on top is called the Analog Card. The Motor control PCB is the smaller one to the rear of the drive assembly.  The next thing you need to do is remove the analog card. Start by removing the drive head connection cable. It is the white connector that is toward the front of the Analog Card. To remove the connector, use two fingers and wiggle it toward the front of the drive. It will slide back about 3/8ths of an inch.
  
The DuoDisk 5.25" disk drive is compatible with all Apple II models except the ROM 03 IIgs, IIc Plus and LC //e Card. These require the AppleDisk 5.25 or compatible drives. Using the DuoDisk with a //c will result in only Drive 1 ever being used as Drive 2 is not accessible since the //c is really using drive the first 5.25" drive on the drive port / daisy chain as it's second 5.25" drive.  
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Remove the two screws holding the Analog Card in place. One is just next to the connector you just removed and the other is at the other front corner. Slide the Analog card forward to get it out of the notches and then flip it backwards over the rear of the drive and out of the way.  
  
=== Apple UniFile / DuoFile 5.25 (A9M0xxx) ===
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You should now see the drive door/centering hub assembly. There may be a metal 'lid' over the head assembly. This just snaps down on the sides. Pop it off by lifting one side, then the other.  
  
The Apple UniFile and DuoFile were to be a storage solution based on the Apple FileWare system which utilized Apple's Twiggy Drive. The Twiggy drive is a 640K double sided drive with horizontally opposed head placement allowing both read/write heads to function simultaneously for more efficient throughput.  
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The drive head assembly will have a pressure pad on a hinged spring loaded lever that is lifted out of the way when the drive door is opened, and when the drive door is closed it is lowered onto the disk and this keeps positive pressure on the moving media so that it maintains constant contact with the head. The label is actually on the opposite side of the disk than the data. In the case of a double sided drive, instead of the pressure pad you would find another head that would by default also act as the pressure pad.
  
=== Apple Uni/Duo Drive 'system' proposal ===
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The exception to this would be the Apple FileWare ('Twiggy') drive that was offered in the Lisa computer at time of introduction. It's heads were horizontally opposed and thus each has it's own pressure pad. This allowed the FileWare drive to simultaneously read/write on both sides of the disk for increased performance.  An image of the Twiggy Drive / Diskette is shown below.
  
The Uni/Duo drive 'system' was thought out to be compatible with any Apple computer system shipping by utilizing all the same connector on the back of the drive for both single and double drive units. This is evidenced by the DuoDisk 5.25" having the 25 pin connector, the Apple /// Plus having the same 25 pin connector and the original concept UniDisk 5.25" each having two 25 pin connectors. As well, the external FileWare drives were to have the 25 pin connector. This way you could use any floppy drive with any system that a cable was provided for.  
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[[Image:TwiggyDrive.jpg]]
  
DB-19 Connector version.
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Just lift the pressure pad and you will see the drive head.  
Drives that fall into this category are the Apple DuoDisk, Apple UniDisk 5.25", AppleDisk 5.25", any converted 20 Pin drives and many drives offered by other vendors with a DB 19 cable and daisy chain pass through port. The DuoDisk does not offer the pass through port because it is a 2 drive unit and since the 5.25" is always the last device on a drive chain, it is not needed.
 
  
 +
The head should be '''shiny like glass''', white with a small black dot or slash in the middle.
  
== IIc Plus, IIgs ROM 3, LC Slot //e Card & 5.25" Drives ==
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What you will probably find is a black or brown blob which represents years of use built up on the head. If it's brown then it's disk particles from deteriorating disks. This is especially hard for the cleaning disk to ever get off. You could let that spin for days and it would never do a thing to it. 
  
Smartport drive information & why some 5.25" drives don't work.
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The disk head is made of glass and is very dense. When someone asks me how to clean a drive head, I generally say "spit shine it" and I'm not kidding. I open up the drive and get down to the head, lick a finger and rub on the head, take a shirt tail and wipe it off. Done. Don't be afraid, there's nothing you can do to that head with your finger thats going to harm it. Sometimes that buildup on there can be pretty stubborn and you can be convinced it really belongs there. It does not. That surface should be mostly white and any black you see should be absolutely centered and below the surface.  
  
The reason drives may not work with the IIgs ROM 03, IIc Plus or Macintosh LC //e emulator card is because around the introduction of the Apple IIc Plus, Apple changed the Smartport protocol to where each device hooked to it, (be it 5.25" drive, 3.5" drive or a Smartport compatible hard disk) needs an ID Byte. The UniDisk 5.25", DuoDisk and most 3rd party drives DO NOT CONTAIN this needed ID Byte rendering such drives unusable with the newer Smartport protocol.
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Again, this is why the cleaning disk will never work and in some ways it's worse, if the cleaning disk is setup for a double sided drive and you place it in a single sided drive- it can tear up the pressure pad and then the drive will have a harder time working.  
  
The difference is due to the way Apple implemented the Write Protect circuit on their own disk drives. The Apple design integrates the Stepper Motor Phase 2 in the write protect status detection where as many third party drive manufactures used a simple ground to complete the circuit. Incompatible drives on these models will just spin at startup, the recalibration will not take place. However placing a disk into the drive enough to pass the Write Protect switch, or a write protected disk, before turning on the computer will allow the drive to boot. Thus it is possible to use incompatible third party drives with the IIc Plus or ROM 3 in a constant write protected state.  
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The head is very durable. The surface of a disk may look smooth, but it's actually super fine magnetic particles. In effect, it's sand paper. The disk head has to put up with this constant friction so it can't be made out of anything that is going to wear down. The disk itself is the weak link in this equation.  
  
=== 20 Pin drives: Converting to 19 pin ===
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You can use Bounty and alcohol, Q-tips and alcohol, etc, too. It needs to be clean and shiny. If it's really bad it will harm disks. 
  
The 20 Pin Disk ][, or compatible, when combined with a 19 pin adapter or replacement cable, can be used with a //c or IIgs ROM 00 or 01 via the Smart Port/Drive Port connector, or at the end of the daisy chain as the last 5.25"/Last device on the chain. When it is used with the //c it is assigned to Slot 6, Drive 2. When used with a IIgs it will be Slot 6, Drive 1 or 2 depending on the position it is connected on the Daisy Chain.  
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When thats all clean- put the analog card back, plug in the head connector and test it out.
  
=== Apple Disk ][ Converting to 19 pin. Addendum ===
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=== Other 5.25 in. drives ===  
  
In some configurations the Apple Disk ][ Drive also works when the cable is changed to a 19 pin cable. This is dependent on variations of the Analog Card in the Disk ][ and varies widely. YMMV.
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Other drives that use a full height assembly are usually very similar in make up. Half height drives made up around the Alps assembly like the Apple //c internal / External drive, the Unidisk/Duodisk 5.25 and AppleDisk 5.25 are very similar as well and the same instructions without the image generally work. On some of these the pressure pad may not lift much farther off the head meaning you can't see straight down at it, in this case- Q-Tips and alcohol are generally the way to go.
  
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=== 5.25 in. Drive Alignment ===
  
== Interfacing Information ==
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In my personal experience, it's a rare circumstance that leads to a Disk II drive, or similar full-height drive actually needing any alignment. Dirty drive heads tend to be the problem. But if alignment is an issue, it's usually because someone else messed with it already.
  
=== Daisy Chain explained ===
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How do you know if your drive needs alignment? You cleaned the heads the spit shine way and the drive still does not read any other disk you have, or most of them, .. but you can format disks with it, and it's go no problems with stuff written to it.  Likewise things written on this one, will not work on others. Once you have figured out with the best process of elimination you have, which drive is actually mis-aligned, you can align the drive that needs correction.
  
The term daisy chain is where each device in a system plugs into the previous device, thus eliminating the need for additional interfaces. Each device contains a connector to plug the next one in. On the back of the Apple UniDisk 5.25", AppleDisk 5.25", Apple UniDisk 5.25" and the AppleDisk 3.5" is a DB-19 Connector identical to the one that the drive is plugged into. In a drive chain on an Apple II Computer, ANY 3.5" device(s) must always come before any 5.25" device(s)
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With that, the odds of you having all the "special" tools to align a disk drive are probably slim and none. Have no fear, though. You can do it with .. another disk drive! What you say? Yes. you can do it with another disk drive. Or just a known working disk.
  
Other things that use daisy chaining on the Apple are SCSI hard disks and AppleTalk (LocalTalk) networking and Ethernet networking. Although Ethernet and AppleTalk to don't quite 'look' the same, it's still a daisy chain system.
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Create a bootable DOS 3.3 disk, and then put some entries in the CATALOG.
  
=== 35 vs. 40 or more tracks ===
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Boot a DOS 3.3 System Master and when you get to the ']' prompt, remove the disk and insert one to be initialized.  
  
The default capacity on Apple 5.25" DSDD floppy storage is 35 tracks, 16 sectors per track.  Some drives, including most of what Apple offers are actually capable of 40 tracks per inch.  There are mods for DOS 3.3 to make it format up to 40 tracks, but keep in mind, these disks may not work in another drive. If there is a problem it is usually within the last 5 tracks, the additional ones, that can't be read as they are beyond the normal range. However this is usually only the earliest 5.25" drives as the industry standard was 40 tracks per inch.  For clarification, the track layout on all drives is identical, the 'extras' are added to the end, the spacing, layout, beginning on the disk, etc- does not change.
+
Type in:
  
=== 13 vs. 16 Sectors per Track ===
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<A2Txt>]INIT HELLO</A2Txt>
  
When the Apple Disk ][ was first offered it was 13 sectors per track. Shortly after introduction this was increased to 16 sectors.  Apple used to provide little round stickers that had an Apple logo silhouette in red with a '16' on white type. What Apple should have actually done was provided the same sticker with a '13' for those few disks you would have left over, not for all the new ones you were going to format.  
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When it's finished, you will see the blinking cursor again. Type in this small BASIC program:
 
 
 
 
=== DOS 3.3 Maximum Capacity ===
 
  
The largest volume size Apple DOS 3.3 can handle without any modification what so ever is 400K. The VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) directly supports up to 400K of tracks/sectors in a 32 sector per track maxim
+
<A2Txt>10 ONERR GOTO 20
1) A Modification may be necessary for the DuoDisk to work on a IIgs
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20 PRINT CHR$(4)"CATALOG"
2) As noted, certain IIc Plus+ units seem to work with any version of the 19 Pin 5.25 drive, and do not require the 'platinum drive'
+
30 GOTO 20
  
=== 720K ProDOS Volumes ===
+
SAVE ALIGN</A2Txt>
  
If you have an DSDD (Double Density) 3.5" MFM drive via a PC Transporter, Blue Disk or Urphi controller, you can format 720K disks as ProDOS volumes. These disks CAN NOT be read in ANYTHING that is 800K only with exception of an AppleDisk 3.5" hooked up to a PC Transporter. If it's an Apple or compatible 800K drive hooked to ANYTHING other than a PC transporter you CAN NOT READ THESE 720K DISKS.  They are MFM. These drives can NOT do MFM with exception of the PC Transporter is doing something specific since it has a hybrid version of the IWM integrated with it.
 
  
Additional IWM/technical information:
+
Save it a few more times, too. So that there are some entries on the disk. Preferably, about 20 entries. So <A2Txt>SAVE A</A2Txt>, then SAVE B, .. C, THIS, THAT, THE OTHER THING, etc. About 20 entries and you know you are using more than one sector worth of data. Ideally you do not want the HELLO program to be the alignment aid as you want to just boot first. Thats why we did NOT type in the program first.  
http://www.stockly.com/forums/showthread.php?t=9
 
  
 +
Now that you have the disk you need, if you have not already done so, you'll need to remove the case from the disk drive. As described above, and in addition once you have removed the top cover, there will be four more screws holding the bottom cover in place. The ribbon cable is also connected to the bottom cover, unsnap that clip so that the bottom cover can be completely removed from the work area. After the drive case is disassembled place the disk drive on it's side so that you can see the bottom. You will see a large round motor, this is called the Stepper Motor. It's called this because unlike a traditional motor, this one only goes in steps when voltage is applied. Instead of like the Drive Motor that spins consistently, a Stepper Motor takes a step of a specific amount. Depending on the capability of the disk drive, this may vary, but the Disk II and compatible hardware are between 80 and 160 steps per inch. If the disk drive can not do quarter tracks, it's 80 steps per inch. Some odd clone drives won't do this, which means they will not work with some copy protected disks.
  
== 3.5" Floppy Drives ==
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There are two 'ears' on the stepper motor that are usually secured with some form of thread lock. Nail polish is an acceptable household replacement for this when you are done. Loosen the two screws you see just slightly, enough to break the grip so that you can rotate the motor in place. You do not need to move this very much at all. Attach your drive to the #2 position on the controller card and boot your floppy in drive one. When you get to the basic prompt, type <A2Txt>]LOAD ALIGN</A2Txt> and then remove the disk and place it into the drive to be aligned.  
  
Apple made two different 3.5" drives for the Apple II, the AppleDisk 3.5" and the UniDisk 3.5". The AppleDisk 3.5" is Apple Platinum colored and was introduced along with the Apple IIgs. With exception of the //c and the Liron card, it is compatible where a 3.5" drive is supported on the Apple II.
+
Type <A2Txt>]CATALOG,D2</A2Txt>
  
 +
If the drive shows a directory then your alignment is probably really close anyway. Or if it didn't work earlier and now it does, just loosening the screws might have moved the motor just enough. As I said, you don't have to move this very much. Type ]RUN ALIGN and the drive should start spinning.
  
=== AppleDisk 3.5 (A9M0106) ===
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The program you are running is simply a looping disk catalog command. As you move the motor from side to side you will hear the drive recalibrating. (Making that 'grinding' sound), when the alignment is proper you should see the catalog data. You want to move the motor from side to side ever so slowly that you find the limits of each direction and then you can center the motor between these two points.
  
This is an external Apple 800K DSDD 3.5" GCR . It can also read 400K disks. Drive. See the compatibility chart after the UniDisk 3.5" information for more detail.
+
To aid this, we're going to make some marks on the drive itself, so center the motor on the bottom of the drive with the screw heads, and make a scratch with an X-Acto blade or similar. That is your center line. Do it just on the motor ear portion at first. Then when you rotate the motor to one end, just when the catalog reading starts to get to where it's hesitating, not coming in as fast, and eventually you should hear nothing but recalibrating, come back in just a little to where it first reads the catalog again and now make a mark opposite the center of the motor ear, on the disk drive chassis itself.  
  
=== Apple UniDisk 3.5 (A2M2053) ===
+
Now do the same thing in the other direction and make the second mark. These are your extreme points. If you put that marker on the motor in the middle of these two points you drive is now aligned well enough and in the real world, will work just fine. The term, 'Good Enough for Government Work' comes to mind. I probably wouldn't run a nuclear power plant, or warp drive system on this type of setup... well, then again, maybe *I* would. ;) But you get my point. If you have no other tools, you can still do this. 
  
This is an External Apple 800K DSDD 3.5". Compatibility with the following computers is as follows:
+
When you have it centered, and you are happy with it, tighten the screws and see that it still works. Now you can hit CTRL-RESET and at the prompt, swap the disk in the drive with some other DOS 3.3 disks and catalog them, you should see a catalog track right away.  
  
The UniDisk 3.5" can be used on the following Apple II Systems, and it's requirements are listed with it.
+
The next test is to swap the drive to the #1 position and boot that alignment aid disk you created. Shut off the computer, swap the cables, and turn it on. The disk should boot to the prompt. As a final test, boot a ProDOS disk now, as ProDOS is a bit more particular. If thats all good, you're done. Put some nail polish on the screws and re-assemble everything. Clean the drive head one more time since you are inside, though. It can't hurt. :)
  
<A2Txt>Apple ][, ][ Plus</A2Txt> : Requires 64K, ProDOS and an Apple 3.5" drive controller.
+
This process works on pretty much any 5.25 inch disk drive, full or half height. Though the motor arrangement and movement may be totally different. In some cases there is an eye that sets where track zero is, and then the drive counts from there. The theory is the same, but it's a little more time consuming as you have to wait for each recalibration for the results. But you would move the eye point. Others use a metal ribbon wrapped around a spindle and have anchor points. By moving the anchor points, changes the alignment. However I will say that drives that tend to use these alternate methods are usually way more resilient and generally don't have this issue. Particularly with Half Height Drives. But exploring mechanical things is fun, too. So.. have at it!
  
<A2Txt>Apple //e:</A2Txt> Requires an Apple 3.5" controller or Apple SuperDrive controller. The SuperDrive controller requires an Enhanced //e
+
=== Adjusting Drive Speed ===
  
<A2Txt>Apple //c:</A2Txt> Requires a ROM upgrade in older //c units to be installed if it's not already installed. If the model # on the //c is A2S4000 then it may not have the ROM installed. To find out, turn on the computer and from BASIC, (the ] prompt) type 'PR#7'. If the EXTERNAL 5.25" drive 'boots' then it needs the ROM upgrade. IF the computer says 'AppleTalk offline' it has the ROM installed. If no external drive is installed and no AppleTalk message appears you still need the newer ROM.
+
With the drive disassembled as specified above, if it's a Disk II or similar drive, there is usually a smaller PCB (Printed Circuit Board) located on the rear of the drive assembly. There will be a potentiometer on there that usually controls the speed. With the drive on it's side, you should see a wheel with a black and white patterns on it, similar to a turn table (record player). With the aid of a fluorescent light in the vicinity, you can set the speed to the default using just the light and the spinning drive. You may also use and older version of Copy II Plus . You generally are aiming for 300 RPM, if there is a counter. Or the "center" of whatever the software says the range is. If you are using the fluorescent light, just turn on the computer with the drive hooked up and no disk inserted. Turn the pot until the spot you have focused on, is stable. Not drifting. It will become evident to you when you see it the motor actually spinning. There are usually two bands. Sometimes labeled 50 and 60. In the US, you'll use the one labeled 60, or 60Hz. In part of Japan you might use the 50Hz, where as the rest of Japan you would use the 60Hz. .. and most of Europe, you'd use the 50Hz. Generally, if your TV standard is PAL, it's 50Hz, if it's NTSC it's 60Hz.  
  
'''The UniDisk 3.5" drive is NOT COMPATIBLE with the Laser Universal Disk Controller. It will do Bad Things when it's plugged in. Do Not Try It.'''
+
If you are using software as the aid, just center it. In the circumstance where you can use software and the light method, the light method over-rules and will usually dis-agree with the software method. Thats the way it is.
  
Another way is to turn on the computer, when you can see the monitor hold down both the Open and Closed Apple keys. (Opposite sides of the spacebar) and hit CTRL and RESET. If the computer goes into a checkerboard type pattern you have the new ROM installed. If the computer goes to an alternating vertical line pattern with a click between each alternation. (Turn up volume, on left side, under keyboard). You will need a ROM upgrade. The part # for this ROM upgrade is 342-0033.
+
Other disk drives, particularly Half Height ones have the speed setting screw in other locations, and some of them are even labeled and accessible from the exterior. You just have to look around for it first.  
  
  
<A2Txt>Apple IIc Plus:</A2Txt> Nothing additional is required to use the UniDisk 3.5" with an
+
=== 3.5 in. Drives ===
Apple IIc Plus.
 
  
 +
Cleaning 3.5 in. drive heads can usually be accomplished with the cleaning disk with far far more success than the 5.25 in. drives.
  
<A2Txt>Apple IIgs:</A2Txt> No additional hardware is required to use the UniDisk 3.5" with an Apple IIgs directly although you can use the UniDisk 3.5" with either an Apple 3.5" controller card or Apple SuperDrive controller in the slot of an Apple IIgs. The UniDisk normally plugs into the floppy port of the Apple IIgs.
+
But in those cases where it's not working, the concept is similar but you may need to take apart less or far more to get to the heads themselves.  
  
The UniDisk is not the recommended 3.5" drive for use with an Apple IIgs although it will work fine for normal usage. It will be slower than using the recommended drive, the AppleDisk 3.5". It looks similar to the UniDisk 3.5" and is the same color as the Apple IIgs itself. Using a UniDisk on a IIgs while using any GS specific software that runs under GS/OS will require that a device driver be installed on the boot volume as well. The driver, titled 'UniDisk.3.5' can be found on the system disk set and be installed using the installer on the System Tools disk of System Disk 5.0.4 or the Installer disk of System 6.0. Using the UniDisk on the IIgs will also be slower than using the proper 3.5" drive and some disk based software from such groups as the FTA may simply not run.
+
But .... read on:
  
<A2Txt>Apple //e Emulation Card:</A2Txt> No additional hardware is needed to use the UniDisk 3.5" with the Apple //e Emulation card. It simply plugs into the Floppy Port of the card, which is the larger plug on the two way cable supplied with the card.
+
3.5 in. drives are generally '''FAR MORE fragile than 5.25 in. drives'''.
  
 +
I'll say it again.'' 3.5 in. drives can be far more susceptible to damage by handling.''
  
=== Apple FDHD / SuperDrive 3.5 (G7287) ===
+
3.5 in. drive also don't generally get as bad as 5.25 in. drives because the disks are shuttered. But should you need to clean heads..
  
The FDHD ('FudHead') / SuperDrive was introduced for the Macintosh and is not an Apple II specific 3.5" drive but due to it's nature it is compatible where an AppleDisk 3.5" (A9M0106) would otherwise be appropriate and requires a separate controller card, the Apple II 3.5" Controller Card, Apple P/N A0076LL/A in order to function as a High Density drive on an Apple II. There is no solution for high density drives in any Apple II that does not have expansion slots with exception of the Mark Twain, prototype IIgs which has an on board SuperDrive controller.
+
[[Image:3.5inDriveHead.jpg]]
  
 +
I can tell you for a fact that most double sided 3.5 in. drives will not work again if you simply reach down and lift up that drive head. They are made of tensioned brass or copper sheeting and not a spring that just snaps back.  They will actually bend and not go back when you let go.  The image above is of one side of a typical 3.5 in. drive head.
  
=== Haba Systems HabaDisk ===
+
Now I have been able to re-tension most of these when thats all that has happened, but the same way those are made, the heads themselves are actually floating on tensioned thin metal. That means if you push down on them extensively, they will most likely come out of alignment.  Disk drives are all about alignment - that way they are all .. "on the same track".
  
The HabaDisk is a 3.5" 320K drive that uses the Apple Disk ][ or compatible controller.  
+
As you can gather from the image above, some due diligence is in order when handling 3.5 in. drive heads. Alcohol and Q-tips are generally the best to use and with one hand only.  
  
=== Amdek AmDisk I, III ===
+
Do not re-use the Q-tip, dip it once, put it in, twirl it around a few times, take it out and look at it. Turn it around and do it again. Do not re-use them because it will start to have threads hanging off and those can get caught on the head and when you pull it out, by the time you feel the tension and stop- it's probably too late. You've already pulled the head.
  
Amdek, known more for monitors, also brought a 3" (3 inch) drive to market for the Apple II and Atari, for the Apple II it used a standard Disk ][ controller. The AmDisk I was replacement for the Disk ][. Down to the fact that if you want to use the back side of the disk you had to remove it and turn it over.
+
=== 3.5 Drive Alignment and Speed Settings ===
  
The AmDisk III was a 360K double sided drive system that was marketed for the Atari and IBM PC, it was supposed to come to the Apple II but never did.
+
Because of the nature of 3.5 drive assemblies, and the advanced state of construction alignment is generally not an issue. If alignment is a problem it's most likely not a correctable issue without additional parts. The Sony auto insert drive assembly has an optical method of head alignment and works using the "from track zero" method. The drive heat itself, (pictured above) has a tab hanging off it at the rear of the lower half the head assembly, (Similar to that tab in the above picture, but it would be at the rear, and on the lower one only) and the eye assembly is movable. This sets the reference point. Due to the way that 3.5 inch drives work it's not as easy to set this using the above methods for the 5.25 inch drives, but it's not impossible either. It's just a lot more unlikely that it needs to be messed with at all.  
  
== 3.5" Drive Compatibility Chart ==
 
  
There are 3 types of 3.5" drives for Apple Computers:
+
Speed settings is a non-issue with Apple compatible 3.5 inch drives as the motor speed is controlled by the drive itself and varies according to track position. 3.5 inch drives tend to be variable speed. There isn't much you can do here.  
NOTE:Any of these drives with the exception of the UniDisk 3.5" can be used with the Laser Universal Disk controller installed in a slotted Apple II.
 
  
=== Apple //c ===
+
=== Security by Obscurity ===
  
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
+
So, you want to store some data on some disks that you want a fairly good chance that no one else can read? Understanding the above procedures on the 5.25 inch drive, set the drive head alignment to some extreme end of travel and when you format any disk in that drive it will not be readable anywhere else. Just make sure you mark all the disks accordingly to indicate that they are of some type of 'special' format. Likewise, with a double sided drive, swap the head positions so that they are reversed. Of course, all data will need to be written to these drives as read from a normal one. But... you see the possibilities here. :)
UniDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053
 
</tab>
 
 
 
=== Apple IIc Plus ===
 
 
 
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 
<A2Txt>Drive</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Manufacture</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Model No.</A2Txt>
 
UniDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053
 
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106
 
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287
 
AMR 800K|American Micro Research|ASA800K
 
</tab>
 
 
 
The FDHD/SuperDrive will function as an AppleDisk 3.5" 800K drive only, when attached to the SmartPort on the IIc Plus.
 
 
 
=== Apple ][, ][+, //e (With Controller) ===
 
 
 
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 
Drive|Manufacture|Model No.|Controller
 
Apple 400K|Apple Computer, Inc.|M130|UDC
 
Apple 800K External|Apple Computer, Inc.|M131|UDC
 
Apple UniDisk 3.5|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053| Liron, SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
 
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106| SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
 
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
 
AE 800K|Applied Engineering|AE800K|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
 
AE HD|Applied Engineering|AEHD|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
 
AMR 800K|American Micro Research|ASA800K|SuperDrive, Universal, UDC
 
*Teac 720K MFM|Teac|235FN|Blue Disk, Urphi
 
*Teac 1.44MB MFM|Teac|235HF|Blue Disk, Urphi
 
Ehman 800K|Ehman Engineering|Garbage!|UDC
 
Laser 3.5"|Video Technology|Same Garbage as Ehman|UDC
 
Chinnon|Taiwanese Generic Clone |More Garbage|UDC
 
</tab>
 
 
 
See the the section on [[Floppy Controllers]] for details on what these descriptions mean.
 
 
 
Apple ][ & ][+ support listed is with respect to electrical/mechanical needs. Additional software and memory is likely required. IE, AppleSoft ROM for the Apple ][, 64K system RAM and ProDOS. ProDOS 1.0 does run on 48K but you can't do much. The requirement was upped to 64K with later releases.
 
 
 
Some of these drives without eject buttons will require the constant use of a paper clip or software eject initiation where available. This applies to the Apple 400K, 800K and Ehman drives.
 
 
 
*The Teac reference can apply to most any 34 pin DSDD or DSHD MFM drive. MFM will provide 720K DD or 1.44MB HD and will NOT read 800K GCR disks. The MFM 720K volume will be a ProDOS volume. This will NOT be readable in any 800K drive either. Only the SuperDrive or AE HD 1.44 will read the 720K ProDOS volume, or any other 720K volume, period.  These can be used with the Blue Disk or Urphi controller only.
 
 
 
The FDHD/SuperDrive requires a separate controller card, the Apple II 3.5" Controller Card, Apple P/N A0076LL/A in order to function as a high density drive with an Apple //e. The FDHD Drive will function as a normal 800K (AppleDisk 3.5") when connected to the Apple Universal Controller or UDC.
 
 
 
The SuperDrive controller itself requires an Enhanced //e to function and therefore will not work with anything less.
 
 
 
=== Apple IIgs ===
 
 
 
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 
<A2Txt>Drive</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Manufacture</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Model No.</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Controller</A2Txt>
 
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106
 
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287
 
UniDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A2M2053
 
AMR 800K|American Micro Research|ASA800K
 
AE 3.5"(800K)|Applied Engineering|AE800K
 
AE 3.5" HD(1.44 Meg)|Applied Engineering|AEHD
 
AE 3.5" HD(1.6 Meg)|Applied Engineering|AEHD+
 
</tab>
 
 
 
The FDHD/SuperDrive requires a separate controller card, the Apple II 3.5" Controller Card, Apple P/N A0076LL/A in order to be used as a High Density drive on a IIgs. The controller card will also handle 800K. The FDHD Drive will also function as a normal 800K (AppleDisk 3.5") when plugged in the back of the IIgs as opposed to being used with the controller installed.
 
 
 
 
 
=== Macintosh ===
 
 
 
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 
<A2Txt>Drive</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Manufacture</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Model No.</A2Txt>
 
Apple 400K|Apple Computer, Inc.|M130
 
Apple 800K External|Apple Computer, Inc.|M131
 
AppleDisk 3.5"|Apple Computer, Inc.|A9M0106
 
Apple External FDHD SuperDrive |Apple Computer, Inc.|G7287
 
AMR 800K|American Micro Research |ASA800K
 
AE 3.5"(800K)|Applied Engineering|AE800K
 
Ehman 800K|Ehman Engineering|Garbage!
 
Laser 3.5"|Video Technology|Same Garbage as Ehman
 
Chinnon|Taiwanese Generic Clone |More Garbage
 
</tab>
 

Latest revision as of 16:18, 13 June 2011

Apple ][ Floppy Drive Reference

Subsection
Description
A2 5.25 Drives (20 Pin) 20 Pin - Internal Connected Drives
A2 5.25 Drives (19 Pin) 19 Pin - External Connected Drives
A2 3.5 Drives Apple II Specific 3.5" Drives
3.5 Drive Compatibility Chart
A2 Floppy Controllers Internal Cards


Daisy Chain explained

The term daisy chain is where each device in a system plugs into the previous device, thus eliminating the need for additional interfaces. Each device contains a connector to plug the next one in. On the back of the Apple UniDisk 5.25", AppleDisk 5.25", Apple UniDisk 3.5" and the AppleDisk 3.5" is a DB-19 Connector identical to the one that the drive is plugged into. In a drive chain on an Apple II Computer, ANY 3.5" device(s) must always come before any 5.25" device(s)

Other things that use daisy chaining on the Apple are SCSI hard disks and AppleTalk (LocalTalk) networking and Ethernet networking. Although Ethernet and AppleTalk to don't quite 'look' the same, it's still a daisy chain system.

35 vs. 40 or more tracks

The default capacity on Apple 5.25" DSDD floppy storage is 35 tracks, 16 sectors per track. Some drives, including most of what Apple offers are actually capable of 48 tracks per inch. There are mods for DOS 3.3 to make it format up to 40 tracks, but keep in mind, these disks may not work in another drive. If there is a problem it is usually within the last 5 tracks, the additional ones, that can't be read as they are beyond the normal range. However this is usually only the earliest 5.25" drives as the industry standard was 48 tracks per inch. For clarification, the track layout on all drives is identical, the 'extras' are added to the end, the spacing, layout, beginning on the disk, etc- does not change.

13 vs. 16 Sectors per Track

When the Apple Disk ][ was first offered it was 13 sectors per track. Shortly after introduction this was increased to 16 sectors. Apple used to provide little round stickers that had an Apple logo silhouette in red with a '16' on white type. What Apple should have actually done was provided the same sticker with a '13' for those few disks you would have left over, not for all the new ones you were going to format.


DOS 3.3 Maximum Capacity

The largest volume size Apple DOS 3.3 can handle without any modification what so ever is 400K. The VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) directly supports up to 400K of tracks/sectors in a 32 sector per track maximum. This is what the Sider uses for a "Super Volume" and several of the popular DOS 3.3 on a 3.5" disk methods do.

720K ProDOS Volumes

If you have an DSDD (Double Density) 3.5" MFM drive via a PC Transporter, Blue Disk or Urphi controller, you can format 720K disks as ProDOS volumes. These disks CAN NOT be read in ANYTHING that is 800K only with exception of an AppleDisk 3.5" hooked up to a PC Transporter. If it's an Apple or compatible 800K drive hooked to ANYTHING other than a PC transporter you CAN NOT READ THESE 720K DISKS. They are MFM. These drives can NOT do MFM with exception of the PC Transporter is doing something specific since it has a hybrid version of the IWM integrated with it.

Blank Media 5.25" / 3.5" Disks

Common Media use by disk size/capacity

Disk Size / Type Capacity Compatible With:
5.25" DSDD 140K Disk ][, DuoDisk, Disk //c, UniDisk 5.25"
AppleDisk 5.25" & Other 5.25" Drives
3.5" SSDD 400K Apple External 400K Drive on UDC / Laser 128
3.5" DSDD 800K AppleDisk 3.5", UniDisk 3.5", AE 3.5" Drive
AMR & Laser 3.5" Drive
3.5" DSHD 1.44MB Apple FDHDSuperDrive, AE 3.5" HD Drive
3.5" DSHD 1.6MB Applied Engineering HD+

Common Media use by Computer

Computer Common Disk Type Alternate / Note
Apple ][+ 5.25" DSDD 3.5" DSDD
Apple //e 5.25" DSDD 3.5" DSDD, DSHD
Apple //c 5.25" DSDD 3.5" DSDD
Apple IIc Plus 3.5" DSDD 5.25" DSDD
Apple IIgs 3.5" DSDD 5.25" DSDD, 3.5" DSHD

Substituting DSHD (1.2MB or 1.44MB) for DSDD (360K or 720K/800K) media. DON'T!

DSHD (High Density) Disks SHOULD NOT BE SUBSTITUTED for DSDD (Double Density) Disks. In simple terms, the density (amount of) magnetic particles on the disk per inch is different for the two disks. That means that the disks are not 'optimized' for other than the format they were designed. While they may work, you WILL loose data, and most likely, WILL loose data over time. The proper disks can be found. You may have to mail order them, but they can be found. Again, you WILL loose data. Thats a promise. It's not a matter of it, but only when.

Other Media Formats

QIC-80 34 pin tape backups are supported by the BlueDisk controller.

There were 8" controller cards made by several companies, 2 of the being Lobo Drives, and Sorrento Valley Associates. Storage on 8" disks in Apple format can be as much as 3 MB.

The AmDisk drive uses 3 (Three Inch) format floppy disks. These disks don't seem to be available anyplace.

Rana, MicroSci and Kodak each made a type of High Density disk drive for use with any slotted Apple II. These drives use industry standard "AT" disks, or 5.25" DSHD disks for capacities up to 1.2 MB per disk.

The MicroSci A80 and Rana Elite 3 drives require High Density disks.


Additional IWM/technical information: http://www.stockly.com/forums/showthread.php?t=9

Drive Head Cleaning & Alignment

Clean drive heads make a huge difference in drive performance. 95% of problem drives can be fixed with cleaning the read/write head(s). Yes, 95%.

Before you whip out that cleaning disk and the alcohol, consider this. There is a pretty good chance that the heads on that drive you have right there have never been cleaned and as much, that the drive is probably at least 20 years old by now. If a cleaning disk has not been used regularly it's not going to do much good. It may not even make a dent in the issue.

The next sections you will find information of a general nature on cleaning the heads in various types of common drives. 5.25 in. drives will stand up to much more abuse and handling. 3.5 in. drive on the other hand are considerably more fragile.

The methods covered here may seem extreme, but the end result is a squeaky clean drive head. Some purists may cringe at what they are about to read. From my personal experience, I've never killed a drive. Thats about as simple as I can put it.

Disk ][ / 5.25 Full Height Drives

DiskIIInternalView.jpg

Cleaning the drive head on the Disk ][ and similar drives is actually very easy. The head assembly is very easy to reach, only "6 screws deep", and one connector. The image above is that of a Disk ][ drive with the cover removed. To remove the cover, remove the four screws on the bottom and slide the cover off the drive.

The PCB (Printed Circuit Board) you see on top is called the Analog Card. The Motor control PCB is the smaller one to the rear of the drive assembly. The next thing you need to do is remove the analog card. Start by removing the drive head connection cable. It is the white connector that is toward the front of the Analog Card. To remove the connector, use two fingers and wiggle it toward the front of the drive. It will slide back about 3/8ths of an inch.

Remove the two screws holding the Analog Card in place. One is just next to the connector you just removed and the other is at the other front corner. Slide the Analog card forward to get it out of the notches and then flip it backwards over the rear of the drive and out of the way.

You should now see the drive door/centering hub assembly. There may be a metal 'lid' over the head assembly. This just snaps down on the sides. Pop it off by lifting one side, then the other.

The drive head assembly will have a pressure pad on a hinged spring loaded lever that is lifted out of the way when the drive door is opened, and when the drive door is closed it is lowered onto the disk and this keeps positive pressure on the moving media so that it maintains constant contact with the head. The label is actually on the opposite side of the disk than the data. In the case of a double sided drive, instead of the pressure pad you would find another head that would by default also act as the pressure pad.

The exception to this would be the Apple FileWare ('Twiggy') drive that was offered in the Lisa computer at time of introduction. It's heads were horizontally opposed and thus each has it's own pressure pad. This allowed the FileWare drive to simultaneously read/write on both sides of the disk for increased performance. An image of the Twiggy Drive / Diskette is shown below.

TwiggyDrive.jpg

Just lift the pressure pad and you will see the drive head.

The head should be shiny like glass, white with a small black dot or slash in the middle.

What you will probably find is a black or brown blob which represents years of use built up on the head. If it's brown then it's disk particles from deteriorating disks. This is especially hard for the cleaning disk to ever get off. You could let that spin for days and it would never do a thing to it.

The disk head is made of glass and is very dense. When someone asks me how to clean a drive head, I generally say "spit shine it" and I'm not kidding. I open up the drive and get down to the head, lick a finger and rub on the head, take a shirt tail and wipe it off. Done. Don't be afraid, there's nothing you can do to that head with your finger thats going to harm it. Sometimes that buildup on there can be pretty stubborn and you can be convinced it really belongs there. It does not. That surface should be mostly white and any black you see should be absolutely centered and below the surface.

Again, this is why the cleaning disk will never work and in some ways it's worse, if the cleaning disk is setup for a double sided drive and you place it in a single sided drive- it can tear up the pressure pad and then the drive will have a harder time working.

The head is very durable. The surface of a disk may look smooth, but it's actually super fine magnetic particles. In effect, it's sand paper. The disk head has to put up with this constant friction so it can't be made out of anything that is going to wear down. The disk itself is the weak link in this equation.

You can use Bounty and alcohol, Q-tips and alcohol, etc, too. It needs to be clean and shiny. If it's really bad it will harm disks.

When thats all clean- put the analog card back, plug in the head connector and test it out.

Other 5.25 in. drives

Other drives that use a full height assembly are usually very similar in make up. Half height drives made up around the Alps assembly like the Apple //c internal / External drive, the Unidisk/Duodisk 5.25 and AppleDisk 5.25 are very similar as well and the same instructions without the image generally work. On some of these the pressure pad may not lift much farther off the head meaning you can't see straight down at it, in this case- Q-Tips and alcohol are generally the way to go.

5.25 in. Drive Alignment

In my personal experience, it's a rare circumstance that leads to a Disk II drive, or similar full-height drive actually needing any alignment. Dirty drive heads tend to be the problem. But if alignment is an issue, it's usually because someone else messed with it already.

How do you know if your drive needs alignment? You cleaned the heads the spit shine way and the drive still does not read any other disk you have, or most of them, .. but you can format disks with it, and it's go no problems with stuff written to it. Likewise things written on this one, will not work on others. Once you have figured out with the best process of elimination you have, which drive is actually mis-aligned, you can align the drive that needs correction.

With that, the odds of you having all the "special" tools to align a disk drive are probably slim and none. Have no fear, though. You can do it with .. another disk drive! What you say? Yes. you can do it with another disk drive. Or just a known working disk.

Create a bootable DOS 3.3 disk, and then put some entries in the CATALOG.

Boot a DOS 3.3 System Master and when you get to the ']' prompt, remove the disk and insert one to be initialized.

Type in:

]INIT HELLO

When it's finished, you will see the blinking cursor again. Type in this small BASIC program:

10 ONERR GOTO 20

20 PRINT CHR$(4)"CATALOG" 30 GOTO 20

SAVE ALIGN


Save it a few more times, too. So that there are some entries on the disk. Preferably, about 20 entries. So

SAVE A

, then SAVE B, .. C, THIS, THAT, THE OTHER THING, etc. About 20 entries and you know you are using more than one sector worth of data. Ideally you do not want the HELLO program to be the alignment aid as you want to just boot first. Thats why we did NOT type in the program first.

Now that you have the disk you need, if you have not already done so, you'll need to remove the case from the disk drive. As described above, and in addition once you have removed the top cover, there will be four more screws holding the bottom cover in place. The ribbon cable is also connected to the bottom cover, unsnap that clip so that the bottom cover can be completely removed from the work area. After the drive case is disassembled place the disk drive on it's side so that you can see the bottom. You will see a large round motor, this is called the Stepper Motor. It's called this because unlike a traditional motor, this one only goes in steps when voltage is applied. Instead of like the Drive Motor that spins consistently, a Stepper Motor takes a step of a specific amount. Depending on the capability of the disk drive, this may vary, but the Disk II and compatible hardware are between 80 and 160 steps per inch. If the disk drive can not do quarter tracks, it's 80 steps per inch. Some odd clone drives won't do this, which means they will not work with some copy protected disks.

There are two 'ears' on the stepper motor that are usually secured with some form of thread lock. Nail polish is an acceptable household replacement for this when you are done. Loosen the two screws you see just slightly, enough to break the grip so that you can rotate the motor in place. You do not need to move this very much at all. Attach your drive to the #2 position on the controller card and boot your floppy in drive one. When you get to the basic prompt, type

]LOAD ALIGN

and then remove the disk and place it into the drive to be aligned. Type

]CATALOG,D2

If the drive shows a directory then your alignment is probably really close anyway. Or if it didn't work earlier and now it does, just loosening the screws might have moved the motor just enough. As I said, you don't have to move this very much. Type ]RUN ALIGN and the drive should start spinning.

The program you are running is simply a looping disk catalog command. As you move the motor from side to side you will hear the drive recalibrating. (Making that 'grinding' sound), when the alignment is proper you should see the catalog data. You want to move the motor from side to side ever so slowly that you find the limits of each direction and then you can center the motor between these two points.

To aid this, we're going to make some marks on the drive itself, so center the motor on the bottom of the drive with the screw heads, and make a scratch with an X-Acto blade or similar. That is your center line. Do it just on the motor ear portion at first. Then when you rotate the motor to one end, just when the catalog reading starts to get to where it's hesitating, not coming in as fast, and eventually you should hear nothing but recalibrating, come back in just a little to where it first reads the catalog again and now make a mark opposite the center of the motor ear, on the disk drive chassis itself.

Now do the same thing in the other direction and make the second mark. These are your extreme points. If you put that marker on the motor in the middle of these two points you drive is now aligned well enough and in the real world, will work just fine. The term, 'Good Enough for Government Work' comes to mind. I probably wouldn't run a nuclear power plant, or warp drive system on this type of setup... well, then again, maybe *I* would. ;) But you get my point. If you have no other tools, you can still do this.

When you have it centered, and you are happy with it, tighten the screws and see that it still works. Now you can hit CTRL-RESET and at the prompt, swap the disk in the drive with some other DOS 3.3 disks and catalog them, you should see a catalog track right away.

The next test is to swap the drive to the #1 position and boot that alignment aid disk you created. Shut off the computer, swap the cables, and turn it on. The disk should boot to the prompt. As a final test, boot a ProDOS disk now, as ProDOS is a bit more particular. If thats all good, you're done. Put some nail polish on the screws and re-assemble everything. Clean the drive head one more time since you are inside, though. It can't hurt. :)

This process works on pretty much any 5.25 inch disk drive, full or half height. Though the motor arrangement and movement may be totally different. In some cases there is an eye that sets where track zero is, and then the drive counts from there. The theory is the same, but it's a little more time consuming as you have to wait for each recalibration for the results. But you would move the eye point. Others use a metal ribbon wrapped around a spindle and have anchor points. By moving the anchor points, changes the alignment. However I will say that drives that tend to use these alternate methods are usually way more resilient and generally don't have this issue. Particularly with Half Height Drives. But exploring mechanical things is fun, too. So.. have at it!

Adjusting Drive Speed

With the drive disassembled as specified above, if it's a Disk II or similar drive, there is usually a smaller PCB (Printed Circuit Board) located on the rear of the drive assembly. There will be a potentiometer on there that usually controls the speed. With the drive on it's side, you should see a wheel with a black and white patterns on it, similar to a turn table (record player). With the aid of a fluorescent light in the vicinity, you can set the speed to the default using just the light and the spinning drive. You may also use and older version of Copy II Plus . You generally are aiming for 300 RPM, if there is a counter. Or the "center" of whatever the software says the range is. If you are using the fluorescent light, just turn on the computer with the drive hooked up and no disk inserted. Turn the pot until the spot you have focused on, is stable. Not drifting. It will become evident to you when you see it the motor actually spinning. There are usually two bands. Sometimes labeled 50 and 60. In the US, you'll use the one labeled 60, or 60Hz. In part of Japan you might use the 50Hz, where as the rest of Japan you would use the 60Hz. .. and most of Europe, you'd use the 50Hz. Generally, if your TV standard is PAL, it's 50Hz, if it's NTSC it's 60Hz.

If you are using software as the aid, just center it. In the circumstance where you can use software and the light method, the light method over-rules and will usually dis-agree with the software method. Thats the way it is.

Other disk drives, particularly Half Height ones have the speed setting screw in other locations, and some of them are even labeled and accessible from the exterior. You just have to look around for it first.


3.5 in. Drives

Cleaning 3.5 in. drive heads can usually be accomplished with the cleaning disk with far far more success than the 5.25 in. drives.

But in those cases where it's not working, the concept is similar but you may need to take apart less or far more to get to the heads themselves.

But .... read on:

3.5 in. drives are generally FAR MORE fragile than 5.25 in. drives.

I'll say it again. 3.5 in. drives can be far more susceptible to damage by handling.

3.5 in. drive also don't generally get as bad as 5.25 in. drives because the disks are shuttered. But should you need to clean heads..

3.5inDriveHead.jpg

I can tell you for a fact that most double sided 3.5 in. drives will not work again if you simply reach down and lift up that drive head. They are made of tensioned brass or copper sheeting and not a spring that just snaps back. They will actually bend and not go back when you let go. The image above is of one side of a typical 3.5 in. drive head.

Now I have been able to re-tension most of these when thats all that has happened, but the same way those are made, the heads themselves are actually floating on tensioned thin metal. That means if you push down on them extensively, they will most likely come out of alignment. Disk drives are all about alignment - that way they are all .. "on the same track".

As you can gather from the image above, some due diligence is in order when handling 3.5 in. drive heads. Alcohol and Q-tips are generally the best to use and with one hand only.

Do not re-use the Q-tip, dip it once, put it in, twirl it around a few times, take it out and look at it. Turn it around and do it again. Do not re-use them because it will start to have threads hanging off and those can get caught on the head and when you pull it out, by the time you feel the tension and stop- it's probably too late. You've already pulled the head.

3.5 Drive Alignment and Speed Settings

Because of the nature of 3.5 drive assemblies, and the advanced state of construction alignment is generally not an issue. If alignment is a problem it's most likely not a correctable issue without additional parts. The Sony auto insert drive assembly has an optical method of head alignment and works using the "from track zero" method. The drive heat itself, (pictured above) has a tab hanging off it at the rear of the lower half the head assembly, (Similar to that tab in the above picture, but it would be at the rear, and on the lower one only) and the eye assembly is movable. This sets the reference point. Due to the way that 3.5 inch drives work it's not as easy to set this using the above methods for the 5.25 inch drives, but it's not impossible either. It's just a lot more unlikely that it needs to be messed with at all.


Speed settings is a non-issue with Apple compatible 3.5 inch drives as the motor speed is controlled by the drive itself and varies according to track position. 3.5 inch drives tend to be variable speed. There isn't much you can do here.

Security by Obscurity

So, you want to store some data on some disks that you want a fairly good chance that no one else can read? Understanding the above procedures on the 5.25 inch drive, set the drive head alignment to some extreme end of travel and when you format any disk in that drive it will not be readable anywhere else. Just make sure you mark all the disks accordingly to indicate that they are of some type of 'special' format. Likewise, with a double sided drive, swap the head positions so that they are reversed. Of course, all data will need to be written to these drives as read from a normal one. But... you see the possibilities here. :)

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