CSA2 Part 3 - wiki.apple2.org

CSA2 Part 3

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From: tdiaz-apple2-org (Tony Diaz) Newsgroups: comp.sys.apple2,comp.answers,news.answers Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Followup-To: comp.sys.apple2 Subject: comp.sys.apple2 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Part 1/4

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part1 Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: August 21 2007 Version: 5.1.38 URL: http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ

The next section is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) posting of the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup. Copyright (c) 2007 by Tony Diaz (email: tdiaz-at-apple2-dot-org), all rights reserved. This document can be freely copied so long as 1) it is not sold, 2) any sections reposted elsewhere from it are credited back to this FAQ with the FAQ's copyright info and official WWW location ( http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ) left in place.

This may not be the latest version of this FAQ-- this is an archived copy. For that, drop by http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ

This FAQ may not be sold, bundled on disks or CD-ROMs, reprinted in magazines, books, periodicals, or the like without prior consent from the maintainer, Tony Diaz. Exceptions are explicitly granted for Juiced.GS and _The_Lamp. Email me for permission otherwise.

Big thanks to Nathan Mates, the previous maintainer of this comp.sys.apple2 FAQ, for allowing it to live on after his departure and anyone who took up that mantle before him.


--- Begin part 3 of 4

How do I get files off the net? 8/26/96

  Quick summary:
  1: Make sure you know how to download files from ftp sites
  2: Make sure you have a Binscii decoder
  3: Make sure you have a Shrinkit unpacker
  4: Unpack with the programs
  
  And, in more detail, starting with a word of explanation:
  
  [There used to be details about older Apple II packing programs in the
  FAQ, but as they're pretty much never used anymore, the info on them
  has been relegated to the 'obsolete' section of the comp.sys.apple2
  FAQ at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.old.html]
  
 5.1 What are Binscii & Shrinkit, and why do I need them? 8/26/96
 
  Shrinkit was written by Andy Nicholas to be able to take multiple
  files or disks and compress them into one file. This allows a authors
  to distribute programs, documentation, and anything else as one
  complete file. It is analogous to (but NOT the same as) Stuff-It or
  [PK]ZIP for Macs and IBMs. Shrinkit comes in many different forms, as
  is noted in the section on downloading it.
  
  Binscii is a method of turning Apple II files into pieces that can be
  safely transmitted by the internet, such as usenet and email, and
  restored to the Apple II file later. It is used for two major reasons:
  1) Since it splits files up into manageable pieces, it lets huge files
  be transmitted without fear of being cut short. 2) Since it translates
  files to strictly printable characters, mediums that cannot safely
  send binary files (i.e. files put through Shrinkit) such as email and
  usenet can send binscii'd files.
  
  Binscii is similar to the unix 'uuencode' encoding, but it is not
  identical, and far superior. It allows Apple II filetype information
  to be restored when the file is unpacked. Secondly, binscii is usually
  not concerned about email or news headers (it ignores them when
  unpacking), and also can unpack the various pieces of a binscii'd file
  in any order, and the original file will be be intact as long as all
  the pieces were unpacked. Finally, you do not have to rejoin all the
  binscii pieces into one file before unpacking.
  
  Why these two programs are so necessary in downloading is the
  following: pretty much all Apple II programs are first compressed with
  Shrinkit, and if they are to be sent via email or to
  comp.binaries.apple2, the shrunk file is then binscii'd. To unpack,
  you will need to first un-binscii the file, if appropriate, and then
  un-Shrink it.
  
  Ok, fine. What do Binscii and Shrinkit files look like?
  
  If you are given a file, first look at the end of the filename. If it
  ends in ".BSC" or ".BSQ" (no quotes, and upper/lower case doesn't
  matter), you most likely have a binscii file. Shrinkit files tend to
  end in ".SHK", but ".BXY" is also used.
  
  If that isn't helpful, or you have a file without a name, then take a
  look at the first few lines of content. After any optional news or
  email header, a binscii file should look like this:

FiLeStArTfIlEsTaRt ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789() GSOMEFILE.SHK AQhmAAAAA8)4MIAI02DA9ARMQEDtAQhmAIVZ gYITA6u7xADA0MjM3YTNBlDOENkQwYURzITM2UDN5gzNDJUQGVERyEDM1QzM4cjN CFUOFR0QxAjR0MjM3YTNBlDOENkQwAQRzITM2UDN5gzNDJUQGVERyEDM1QzM4cjN

  The first two lines are constant throughout all binscii files; the
  third contains the filename ('SOMEFILE.SHK' here) and then the encoded
  file.
  
  On the other hand, a .SHK file cannot have any news or email header,
  and has only about 6 characters at the start (not all viewable on a
  normal screen, especially non-Apple IIs) that identify it. Thus,
  trying to look at the first few lines is pointless.
  
  Finally, you can always try to unpack the file, as the binscii and
  Shrinkit programs will notify you if the file is not in the format
  they can unpack. As files are always binscii'd last, you should thus
  try and unbinscii an unknown file first, then try to unshrink it.
  
  Enough technical discussions, now on to the specifics of where and how
  to get binscii and shrinkit running on your system.
  
    _________________________________________________________________
                                     

5.2 Where can I get Apple II software and info on the net? 3/2/97

  If you're looking for an OS (operating system) for your Apple II,
  there's pretty much no way to download it and write it to an Apple II
  disk without an Apple II handy. However, there are other ways of
  getting it; see section 7.2 of this FAQ.
  
  [A quick note about URL notation: For those of you with full net
  access, you can run a web browser (like Lynx if you are dialed in from
  your Apple), which will understand URLs directly. Otherwise, ignore
  the 'http:' ones and see the next section on how to use the FTP ones.)
  

Hint:

      ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2
            ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^
                Hostname         Directory
 Major FTP sites and mirrors:
 
    * ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2 Maintained by Dan Zimmerman,
      this large and well organized Apple II Archive is the best place
      to look for sofrware.
    * ftp.apple.com, dts/aii Apple's main ftp site. Get Technical Info,
      ProDOS 8 and GS System Software, etc. here.
    *
      ftp://mirror.apple.com/mirrors/Apple_SW_Updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCa
      rd_IIGS_1.1/ Hypercard GS. This is also available at
      ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple_Support_Area/Apple.Software.Updates
      /US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS_1.1/
    * ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/appleII/eamon/guild/original/
      Eamon (text-based RPG system for Apple IIs) adventures in DOS 3.3
      or ProDOS format.
    * ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2 We (The Apple II users of the
      internet) paid a good chunk of money for this drive, so it's the
      biggest, and may have the best selection, but the worst
      organization and disregard of legality, due to blind association
      with a pirate. The WWW interface at
      http://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/ is almost always available.
    * ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/archive/apple2 Another large Apple
      II archive. Once again, the WWW interface at
      http://www.umich.edu/~archive/apple2 can be less overloaded.
    * ftp://ftp.hypermall.com/pub/gno or
      http://www.gno.org/pub/apple2/gs.specific/gno/base204/ . GNO/ME
      2.0.4 distribution.
    * http://www.openix.com/~jac Archive of all postings to
      comp.sources.apple2.
    * ftp://names.wvu.edu/pub/apple3 - Apple III stuff
      
  And for information, here's some of the major resources:
  
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.html- Hypertext version of
      this FAQ, and even more FAQs on all sorts of questions and
      subjects
      
    http://delphi.com, the best place for quality flamefree Apple II
  people and discussions.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Applesoft Basic
  reference FAQ.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html Apple II DOS & Commands
  FAQ.
  
    http://www.hypermall.com/History What is the history of the various
  models in the Apple II series?
  
    http://www.gno.org/~gno/FAQ.html comp.sys.apple2.gno FAQ [For the
  GNO/ME multitasking environment for the Apple IIGS]
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/pinouts.html Pinouts for many
  different Apple II connectors
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html Apple IIGS sound and
  music capabilities.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/sys6files.html Reference of GS/OS
  System 6's filestructure, with notes as to which files are required,
  etc.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Flopticals and Apple
  IIs.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html CDROMs and Apple IIs.
  
    http://www.teraform.com/~lvirden/Misc/apple2-languages.txt Apple II
  Programmmer's Catalog of Languages and Toolkits
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/zip.html Upgrading and modifying
  Apple IIGS accelerators.
  
    http://www.crl.com/~joko/ssii.html - ShareWare Solutions II Homepage
  
    http://www.tals.dis.qut.edu.au/staff/willie/ Willie Yeo's verified
  list of commercial Apple II products reclassified to be publically
  distributable.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/index.html - Nathan Mates's Apple II
  Links. Lots of 'em.
  
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/bbs.html - Mike Shecket's BBS listing
  
 Other FTP Sites:
 
    * ftp://ftp.sheppyware.ml.org/Public-FTP/ Eric Shepherd's Apple II
      software.
    * ftp://ftp.ms.uky.edu/pub/appleII Mostly very old Apple II software
    * ftp://ftp.cc.utexas.edu/gifstuff/apple GIF viewing software for
      Apple IIs only. (And outdated. Major sites listed above have
      better selections)
    * ftp://info2.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive
      Looks like a umich mirror again
    * ftp://syr.edu/software/kermit/appleII Kermit sources for the Apple
      II.
    * ftp://watsun.cc.columbia.edu/kermit/a Kermit stuff in forms that
      look unusable to Apple II users.
      
 Archives of C.S.A2 Newsgroups:
 
  Dejanews, http://www.dejanews.com, is an excellent searchable archive
  of pretty much all major usenet groups, including all of the Apple II
  newsgroups. It's only good back to about March 1995 as of 8/31/96, but
  they may be trying to extend that back.
  
  Other, more limited archives:
===================

wuarchive.wustl.edu /usenet/comp.sources.apple2 (complete!)

                        /usenet/comp.binaries.apple2

?ftp.tohoku.ac.jp /pub/news/comp.binaries.apple2 hp4nl.nluug.nl /pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete) mcsun.eu.net /pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete) nic.funet.fi /pub/archive/comp.sources.apple2 (complete?) relay.cs.toronto.edu /pub/lists.1989 (1989 only)

  If you have a Shell account, you can use 'archie' to find ftp sites
  with a particular file.
  
    _________________________________________________________________
                                     

5.3 How do you download files off the net?

  This is important because once you're on the internet, most of the
  files are available only on 'ftp' and www sites. ('ftp' stands for
  File Transfer Protocol, and www stands for the World Wide Web, but all
  you need to know is where to get Apple II files from. See the section
  above for a list of ftp sites.)
  
   1. (For ProLine users) Get files to your host
        1. Dial up your host and log in.
        2. I'm not familiar with ProLine, so I'll be vague here. Just go
           into the files section and look... Anyone wanna clue me in?
   2. (for those with a Shell account) Get files to your host
        1. Choose an FTP site from the FAQ
        2. At your UNIX prompt, type "ftp _____" (fill in hostname)
        3. At the "Login:" prompt, type "anonymous" (or "ftp" if you are
           a bad speller like me ;)
        4. Type in your e-mail address when prompted for a password.
        5. Type "bin" unless you are only getting text files
        6. Type "cd ______" (directory) to move to the right directory.
        7. type "ls" to see a list of files.
        8. Locate each file (more "cd ___"'s and "ls"). Also, "cd .."
           will move up a directory in the tree.)
        9. use "get ______" (filename) to get it
       10. When you are done using FTP, type "quit"
   3. From a WWW browser, most browsers are not set up to download .SHK
      files in binary, which will make them impossible to unpack. There
      are some solutions to this. Dan Zimmerman has made the Apple II
      archive at Caltech automatically send files in binary mode; go to
      http://apple2.caltech.edu/a2archive.html
      If you are using Lynx, when the cursor is on the file to download,
      you can hit 'd' to download the file, which for most people forces
      a binary download. [Lynx has too many versions with the same
      version 'number' and possible configurations to be able to list
      which ones will work.]
      Using most WWW browsers under unix (Netscape, Mosaic, lynx, maybe
      some others) you can try editing the file '.mime.types' (no 's) in
      your home directory on most unix systems. (Contact your local
      sysadmin or guru for help on unix editors). Add the following
      lines to the file:

application/x-Shrinkit shk SHK sdk SDK application/x-BinaryII bny BNY bqy BQY bxy BXY

  This will work for most files downloaded with lynx, netscape, and
      mosaic. Non-unix browsers can do similar things, but you'll need
      to read the documentation on them.
   4. From email or comp.binaries.apple2, the files are pretty much
      always in BINSCII format, so you do not need to worry about binary
      downloading. Simply save the email or news articles to disk (most
      things do have multiple parts, so be sure to get all of them), and
      download that to your Apple II. You can keep the posts as separate
      files, no need to paste them all together when saving or
      downloading. For a multiple part binscii file, the order in which
      you unpack them does not matter as long as you unpack every part.
   5. Get files to your Apple II
      See the next section on transfering Apple II files.
      
 5.4 How do you transfer Apple files to/from other personal computers?
 
  Normally, you cannot stick a 5.25" disk in a non-Apple II machine and
  have it read it. This is because the disk writing formats are
  different at a hardware level, and no software exists (or will exist)
  to let a PC read an Apple II 5.25" drive. However, with rarer addon
  hardware, you can bridge the gap. This has been an insolvable problem
  for nearly 15 years; if it could be solved in software, such a thing
  would exist.
  
  That being said, here's a list of ways that do work:
  
 5.5 How do I transfer DOS 3.3, Pascal, CP/M files?
 
  Unless you have a null modem (see below) and a comm program for the OS
  in question, you'll most likely have to use a real Apple II to
  transfer the files to an OS that a lot more systems can read, such as
  ProDOS.
  
  The ProDOS system software, the DOS 3.3 FST (optional part of GS
  System 6.0 and 6.0.1), and Copy ][+ can all read and convert files on
  DOS 3.3 disks to ProDOS disks; all but the DOS 3.3 FST can write from
  ProDOS to DOS 3.3 disks. All data files should translate fine, but any
  program requiring a specific OS will probably not run under the wrong
  OS.
  
  For translating between ProDOS, CPM, Pascal and DOS 3.3, try the
  program Chameleon. You have to use the 'force disk as ProDOS' option
  to copy to/from your hard drive.
  
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/chameleon.bsq
  
  Once the file is on a ProDOS disk, you generally have a lot more
  transfer options available.
  
 5.6 How do I transfer files by [null] modem?
 
  This is probably the most accessible option; it can be done by an
  Apple and any other computer as long as both have serial ports,
  cable(s) to go between them, and communications software on both
  sides.
  
  Modems allow you to transfer computer data over phone lines; a null
  modem essentially yanks the middleman of a phone. Null modem cables
  (which are identical to serial printer cables) are essentially a cable
  which plugs into the serial port of two computers, and is wired such
  that when one computer sends, the other receives, and vice versa. With
  a communications program that supports file transfer on both ends, you
  can send files from one side to the other. There are a few companies
  selling null modem cables and the like; see the appropriate section of
  this FAQ- 10.2 for their info.
  
  For those who haven't picked a program to download with, here are the
  better Apple II programs listed alphabetically; for other systems,
  you'll have to find a comparable program. All of the non-commercial
  programs are available from FTP sites. If you don't have a comm
  program already, your best bet is to have someone mail you one on a
  disk or buy ProTerm. (See resources).
  

Program Comp Emulations Protocols Note


|----|---------------------------------------------------------------

ANSITerm GS$ color ANSI, PSE X,Y,Z-modem Editor, scrollback, etc. Agate E mono ANSI X,(Y,Z D/L only) Unpacks ZIP, buggy ColorTerm GS color ANSI X-modem Desktop based CommSys E none X-modem Works on ][+ FreeTerm GS none X-modem Desktop based GSVT GS VT-100 none Desktop GTerm GS color ANSI none Written in BASIC/ML GenComm GS none none Text, Shell Compat. Kermit-65 E VT-100 Kermit, X-modem Hard to use,Works on ][+ MegaTerm GS color ANSI none ProDOS 8 PTP E$, VT-100 X-Modem, (Y-mdm D/L) From Quality Computers ProTerm E$ PSE, VT-100 Kermit, X,Y,Z-modem From InSync SnowTerm GS VT-100 (+) none Desktop based Spectrum GS$ ANSI, VT100, PSE, Viewdata Kermit,X,Y,Z Modem GS Desktop Prog TIC E$ VT-100 (+) X-modem Small, Scripting. Telcom GS VT-100, PSE X, (Y D/L only) Shell compat Z-Link E VT-100 X-modem Good.


Key:---------

| Key: $ = A commercial program + = And other obscure ones | Computer: E = works on GS and //e, GS = only works on GS | D/L = Download from other computer ---

  PTP = Point-To-Point. I don't think it's being sold anymore. Anyone
  know? See the resources section for where to buy the commercial
  programs.
  
  Once you are set up with a comm program on both ends, with a modem,
  here's how to send files:
   1. Find out what file transfer protocols your Apple communications
      package supports. (see below for a list)
   2. On your local comm program, set your file transfer type to Text
      (TXT) or Binary (BIN) depending on what type of file you are
      downloading. If there is an option to "strip incoming linefeeds",
      try turning it on.
   3. Get your host to send you the file. I don't know about ProLine,
      but UNIX users can use these commands:
      For Z-Modem: "sz ___ ____ ____" (file names)
      For X-Modem: "sx ____" (one at a time)
      For Kermit: "kermit", then "put _____" (filename)
      Z-Modem is by far the fastest of the three; if you are getting
      random connection errors, you may need to do "sz -e ___ ____ ____"
      to force a safer (but slower) xfer method.
   4. If needed, tell your local communications program to Receive. You
      must do this quickly, or the other host will give up trying to
      send the file.
   5. Write down the full pathname of the files you downloaded and where
      you put them. There will be a quiz later. Pathnames look like
      "/DISK/DIR/FILE.NAME"
      Note: If something goes wrong, hit ESC, Ctrl-X or Ctrl-C 3 times.
      If you can't get one protocol to work, try the next one down.
      Z-modem is much faster than the others. You will want to find a
      program that supports it.
      
  With a null modem, it is similar. First, you need to tell both sides
  that they are online. Reading the manual is strongly encouraged! This
  is easy for some programs, where you can just start them or set an
  option, and they're running. Other, like Windows 95's Hyperterminal,
  are almost dead set on dialing a modem first. You'll also need to set
  both sides to communicate at the same speed and connection parameters
  (8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, aka '8N1' is customary). When you've
  got that done successfully, you can type on either computer's keyboard
  and have it appear on the other's screen.
  
  Once the null modem connection is set up, you can transfer files. From
  the receiving end, issue the command(s) to receive a file in some
  protocol, such as Kermit, X-Modem, or Z-Modem. Then, from the sending
  side, issue the command(s) to send a file in that same protocol. The
  file should then be transferred. (As above, reading the manuals and/or
  documentation for the software used is highly encouraged).
  
  A very nice null modem is the CrossWorks product, which has been taken
  over by Sequential Systems. It is a null modem cable as well as Apple
  II and IBM PC software that lets you translate certain types of files
  between both sides, such as Appleworks files, and keep the formatting
  roughly intact. See the vendors lists below.
  
 5.7 How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple II?
 
  As noted above, Apple II drives write differently at a hardware level
  than IBM PC drives; you will not be able to write to IBM PC 5.25"
  disks or 720K 3.5" disks from Apple IIs unless you have special
  hardware.
  
  If you have an Apple //e, the Bluedisk from ///SHH systeme, which lets
  you plug in IBM PC 3.5" and 5.25" drives to an Apple II; you should be
  ablt to transfer files with standard file copy programs. Another
  option is the AE PC Transporter card, which had PC disk drive support
  for 5.25" and 3.5" drives, as well as the software to translate
  between the two. You also get the ability to run a number of IBM PC
  programs on your Apple.
  
  If you have a 3.5" drive on your system capable of reading 800K or
  1.44MB disks, you can read Mac (HFS) disks of the right size directly
  with some pieces of software:
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu apple2/8bit/util/a2fx.8.bsq
  
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/hfslink.b3.bsq
  
  Null modem's also an option if your Apple II has a serial port. Such a
  port is built into the //c, IIc+ and IIGS; you will need to purchase a
  card such as the Super Serial Card to add such functionality to a ][,
  ][+ or //e.
  
 5.8 How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple IIGS?
 
  With support for both 3.5" and 5.25" drives, the Apple IIGS is the
  best all-round platform for transferring files between various setups.
  First, all of the Apple II programs and methods are available to it;
  see the section just above this for those.
  
  With GS System 6.0 and 6.0.1, the GS gained the ability to read and
  write Macintosh 800K and 1.44MB floppies from within all programs, not
  just the dedicated transfer programs mentioned above for pre-GS
  machines. (1.44MB disks require some additional hardware, such as the
  Apple 1.44MB Superdrive and Superdrive controller, the Bluedisk, or
  SCSI Floptical drives). Use the System 6 installer (select 'Custom'
  install to get the list of addons) to install the HFS (Macintosh) FST
  on your boot disk, then reboot to load it. It may be a bit of a
  squeeze to fit the HFS FST and such on a 800K boot disk, and GS System
  6.0/6.0.1 pretty much requires at least 1-1.25MB RAM to do stuff.
  
  System 6.0.1's optional MS-DOS FST allowed read-only (not write)
  access to MS-DOS formatted disks, though disks with Windows 95's VFAT
  extended names will not have the long names displayed. The GS's normal
  800K drives are not capable of reading MS-DOS 720K or 1.44MB disks
  directly; you will need to get a 1.44MB capable drive, as listed in
  the paragraph above.
  
  For the ability to write to MS-DOS disks, you will need Peter Watson's
  (email: paw@acslink.net.au) MSDOS utilities (latest version is 2.30),
  which can read/write MS-DOS formatted disks, both FAT (pre-WIN95) and
  VFAT (WIN95) disks, including Zip disks. It's not currently usable
  from within the Finder or other programs, but you need a program shell
  such as that included with The Byteworks' Orca series, Procyon's
  GNO/ME, ProSEL-16's shell, or the minimal shell included in the
  msdostools package.
  
  ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/apple16/utils/MSDOS.util/MSDOS.TOOL
  S.SHK
  
  System 6.0 also added read-only support for Dos 3.3 and Pascal 140K
  disks. The Pascal FST in System 6.0.1 (and probably 6.0 also) will not
  recognize disks with legal punctuation in the disk name; Nathan
  Mates's GUPP program fixes that. See the System 6.0 mini-FAQ in this
  FAQ for details on where to download GUPP.
  
 5.9 How do I read/write Apple II files from a Mac?
 
  If you can read/write Apple II 3.5" disks, Macs can usually read/write
  to them, but please note the many quirks noted below. Apart from the
  Apple //e emulation card (see below), Macs never really had 140K 5.25"
  support. Using a null modem is almost always an option; see above.
  
  With Mac System 7.5 and up, the Control Panel 'PC Exchange' lets
  inserted ProDOS and MS-DOS disks appear on the desktop and copy files
  to and from them, making the procedure rather simple. Before 7.5
  (starting somewhere in Mac System 5 or 6 series), the program 'Apple
  File Exchange' was bundled on the system disks; it could manually (and
  very slowly) copy individual files, but only from within Apple File
  Exchange. Consult the system software disks for your Mac if you can't
  find these programs.
  
  Macs downloading to Apple II disks to be read by ProDOS 8 applications
  is usually not an issue of directly dragging a downloaded file to the
  destination disk. Despite the claims of 'compatability' or 'ease of
  use', you're likely to need a special program to help to get a ProDOS
  8 program such as BASIC.SYSTEM for Binscii, Shrinkit 3.4, Appleworks,
  etc., to read the files. [GS/OS can deal fine with the additions to
  the file, but if you're trying to get the ProDOS 8 version of binscii
  running, that is no help.] The usual symptom of this problem is a
  'FILE TYPE MISMATCH' error on trying to read the file.
  
  It is reported that the Mac program 'ProTYPE' can be used as a helper
  app to clean up the crud Macs add to files before copying them to an
  Apple II. There was also another program to do the same, but it
  disappeared recently from the net, which is apparently "normal" for
  Mac ftp sites. ProTYPE is currently available online (at an Apple II
  based site, so it hopefully won't disappear like the last rather
  useful program) at
  ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mac/ProTYPE.hqx
  Consult the various Mac FAQs for information on how to download and
  use Mac programs. See section 1.3 of this FAQ for references on
  finding other FAQs.
  
  Some have said that you can apparently change the type and creator to
  'TEXT' and 'pdos', before copying it to the ProDOS disk-- that'll
  prevent it from adding the resource fork when writing to a ProDOS
  disk. Others claim that won't do the trick for them.
  
  Once you have the ability to download .bsq files and unpack them,
  there are some Apple II files to remove forks. [These files are packed
  with Binscii. If you don't have binscii because it's got a resource
  fork on it, you can't use these fork removers. Thus, you'll need to
  deal with it on the Mac end at first.]
  
  HFS.LINK, listed above can apparently read out the data from either
  fork; there are also the programs ConvertForks 1.0 or ForkSplit 0.5.
  
  Also, the Apple //e emulation card (available for a few models of
  Macs-- see the section on it) allows you to plug in a real Apple II
  5.25 drive, and read files off of it.
  
 5.10 How do I read/write Apple II files from an IBM PC?
 
  IBM PC drives operate differently from Apple II drives at a hardware
  level; there is NO software to overcome that. The only way to bridge
  the gap with only a PC or an Apple II is by using (rare) addon
  hardware. [Technical details: PCs use MFM disk encoding; Apple IIs use
  GCR. The disk controller card does the decoding of the bitstream, and
  if it's in the wrong format, it'll mess up the bits before software
  can get anywhere near it. Thus, a new disk controller card is a bare
  minimum.]
  
  If you have a Macintosh and access to an Apple II with 3.5" disks
  (such as most GSs), you can copy the files to a ProDOS disk and let
  the Mac read that disk. It can then copy them to a MS-DOS disk with
  the same software that read the ProDOS disks; see above for Mac
  specifics.
  
  Null modem is probably the best method; as noted above, the Crossworks
  product from Sequential Systems is a good product that lets you
  transfer and translate certain Apple II and IBM PC file formats.
  
  There's supposedly a program that reads 1.44MB ProDOS disks on a PC
  (which the PC does support), but you need the ability to write such
  disks from the Apple II side anyhow.
  
  There are a few rare hardware boards that you can plug into a PC and
  get it to access Apple II disks; the Trackstar Plus and Quadram boards
  are reported to be usable in IBM PCs. (Quadram's Quadlink reportedly
  only supports the IBM PC XT and older; the Trackstar Plus works well
  in any PC with space for a very full-sized ISA board and VGA
  capabilities) Neither is available new anymore, and can command a
  premium now on the used market, as IBM PCers who sold off their Apple
  IIs realize the follies of their ways. :)
  
 5.11 How do I download and unpack binscii?
 
  [If you'd rather skip this and most of the next step, Steve Cavanaugh
  has a disk containing this, Shrinkit 3.4, and many other useful
  programs. See the Resources section (10.2) below.]
   1. Binscii has many programs that can unpack it, but if you have none
      of them, you will need to first get 'BINSCII.TXT', the only
      binscii program that can be transferred without any of the others
      or Shrinkit. [Spectrum 2.1 and later can also unpack Binscii, so
      if you have a GS and want to purchase this program for general
      telecom use, that's an alternative.] After you have this binscii
      program and Shrinkit, you can unpack other binscii decoders.
   2. There are non-Apple II Binscii programs (sciibin is available in
      source code form ready to be compiled on unix and other
      platforms), should you desire, but to download and unpack
      Shrinkit, you will almost certainly need a minimal Binscii decoder
      on your Apple II. Thus, it's in your best interest to download a
      binscii decoder.
   3. Make sure you have a method of getting files to a ProDOS disk on
      your Apple. That may include downloading with a communications
      program, or copying to a disk from another computer. Please note
      that Apple II and IBM PC 5.25" and 3.5" disk formats are different
      at a hardware level, so without (rare) addon hardware on one or
      both sides, you cannot use an IBM PC to download stuff to an Apple
      II disk.
      Macs running system 7 can write to ProDOS 3.5" 800K disks, but
      please note that the Macintosh system software has the bad habit
      of adding a "resource fork" to files. This makes them UNREADABLE
      from most Apple IIs, unless you run a special program on them from
      the Macintosh side. Please see the section on file transfer from
      Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.
      If you do not have ProDOS, please contact your local Apple II User
      Group for a copy-- they can copy it free of charge. If you do not
      have a modem program, but do have a modem or null modem to another
      computer, Steve Cavanaugh's disk that was mentioned above has some
      simple comm programs. Alternatively, the commercial program
      ProTERM 3.1 by Intrec is by far the best general Apple II
      communications program, so if you have at least a 128K Enhanced
      Apple //e, a //c, IIc+, or Apple IIGS, it is worth it to invest in
      this program. See the sections on dealers below for Intrec's
      address and phone number.
      The rest of this tutorial assumes that you have read the above
      sections and have a basic clue as to how to navigate the internet
      and download files.
   4. Download the file 'BINSCII.TXT', written by Todd Whitesel to your
      Apple II. A copy is linked in at Nathan Mates's Apple II Resources
      WWW pages, http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/binscii.txt Or, check
      the major Apple II ftp sites (see above), as well as
      ftp.ugcs.caltech.edu, pub/nathan/binscii.txt
      This is a text file. (Previous versions of it were named
      'binscii.exe', which most people confused as being a MS-DOS
      executable, which the program most definitely is not.) It must be
      downloaded in text mode to your computer, or it will require some
      work to get it working. Check the ftp and [z]modem transfer
      options to make sure binary mode is off before downloading it to
      your Apple II.
      If you used a Macintosh to write the file to a ProDOS disk, be
      warned that it'll sometimes add a 'resource fork' to the file,
      rendering it unusable under ProDOS and Basic with a "FILE TYPE
      MISMATCH" error on trying to access it. To avoid that, see the
      section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for a Mac
      program to clean up after that problem.
   5. See if you can unpack it. You will need to get to Applesoft Basic
      under ProDOS to do this. [ProDOS identifies itself as such when
      booting, and Basic is the ']' prompt available by running
      'BASIC.SYSTEM' if you booted to the Finder]. From the prompt,
      change to the disk/directory with the BINSCII.TXT file in it. [A
      reference on Dos 3.3 and ProDOS commands is not part of this FAQ,
      but is available at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html]
      Next, verify that the file was transferred as a text file. From
      the prompt, type the following:

PR#3 CATALOG

  If the "PR#3" command causes your computer to crash, hang, or display
      garbage, you do not have an 80-column card in the normal place.
      [This is rare, and only happens on ][+s, or stock //es.] Reboot
      your computer and try again without the PR#3 command. The catalog
      should have a line like the following (though the date and time
      will vary)
BINSCII.TXT       TXT       12   20-AUG-96  20-AUG-96  3:14    5645
  [If not in 80-column mode, that'll be wrapped to 2 lines.] Anyhow, the
      number we wanted was the very last number, which should be 5645.
      If that number is 5737, you downloaded in binary mode off an IBM
      PC. That's fixable. If the number is 512, you disregarded the
      warnings above about how the Macintosh will make an Apple II file
      unreadable; see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to
      Apple II for a Mac program to clean up after that problem.
      Also, note the file type in the second column, which is 'TXT'
      here. If it is already TXT, you can skip forward to step 5. Fixing
      the filetype. First, note what it currently is. If it's not 'TXT',
      common alternatives are 'BIN' or '$00', but almost anything is
      possible. The second and fourth line of the following commands,
      assume it's '$00', with file length 5645. Modify those two values
      to match what you saw in the catalog listing above:

RENAME BINSCII.TXT,BINSCII.ORIG BLOAD BINSCII.ORIG,A$2000,T$00,L5645 CREATE BINSCII.TXT,TTXT BSAVE BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L5645

  This first renames the old file, loads it up, creates a file of the
      right length and then writes the new file.
   6. Now that the file type is correct, trying to install binscii. Type
      the following:

EXEC BINSCII.TXT

  If you get a lot of ?SYNTAX ERRORs and beeps, then you most likely did
      not download it in ascii mode. You should try again, making sure
      of ascii mode, or try typing in this program. If the file size you
      got from the CATALOG above is not 5645, change the 5645 in line 10
      to whatever it is.

10 D$=CHR$(4): L=5645 20 PRINT D$"BLOAD BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L 30 FOR I=8192 TO 8192+L: IF PEEK(I)=10 THEN POKE I,13 40 NEXT: ONERR GOTO 60 50 PRINT D$"DELETE BINSCII2.TXT" 60 PRINT D$"CREATE BINSCII2.TXT,TTXT" 70 PRINT D$"BSAVE BINSCII2.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L

  Use the basic command 'RUN' (no 's) to run this program. After it is
      done, you should have a better chance at being able to "EXEC
      BINSCII2.TXT" and run it.
   7. After all of this is done, you should have the 'BINSCII.SYSTEM'
      program on the disk/directory you EXECd binscii from. To run it,
      type

-BINSCII

  That should start it. For now, with no files to decompress, just exit
      it. Congratulations, you can now unpack BINSCII files.
   8. There are fancier BINSCII decoders, but this one is the only that
      can be easily transferred. If you have a GS, you might want to
      consider downloading the gsciiplus program from some of the
      following ftp sites:
      apple2.archive.umich.edu, apple2/gs/archivers/gscii.bsc
      apple2.caltech.edu pub/apple2/addons/nda/gscii231.shk
      However, to unpack this, you will need a Shrinkit program
      (detailed in the next section) to unpack them before you can use
      them. Once unpacked, you will need to copy the 'gsciiplus' NDA to
      the DESK.ACCS folder inside the SYSTEM folder on your boot GS/OS
      disk.
      
 5.12 How do I download and unpack a Shrinkit unpacker?
 
  Ok, getting and downloading binscii is the hard part, promise. Because
  binscii takes care of the worry of filetypes, end of lines and the
  like, you don't really need to worry about those problems again.
  
  Which Shrinkit program you should download depends on which model of
  Apple II you have. These programs are listed in increasing order of
  features and better user interfaces, so Unshrink ][+ will run on
  pretty much anything that you got binscii running on, while
  GS-Shrinkit 1.1 will only run Apple IIGSs. Apple IIGS programs can
  have file formats known as 'forked files' which ProDOS 8 and regular
  Shrinkit cannot unpack, so if you wish to download and unpack most GS
  programs, GS-Shrinkit is required. (The exceptions are demos and the
  like distributed as a shrunk copy of a disk)
  
  At least an Apple ][+ with 64K running ProDOS:
         
         Your only option is Unshrink ][+ and Autounshrink, available
         via ftp from
         
         apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/unshk2plus.bsc
         apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/autounshk.bsq
         
  At least an Enhanced Apple //e with 128K, or //c, IIc+, IIGS:
         
         Although you can run Unshrink ][+, Shrinkit 3.4 is far better.
         Get
         apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/shrinkit34.bsc
         
  At least an Apple IIGS with at least 1.5MB Ram, running GS/OS System
         5.0.4 or later, hard drive recommended:
         
         GS-Shrinkit is the best choice, though if you spend most of
         your time in ProDOS 8, you may also want to get Shrinkit 3.4 as
         well as detailed above. You can get GS-Shrinkit from
         apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/gshk11.bsc
         
  Download the appropriate file(s) to your computer, and unpack them
  with the binscii decoder.
  
  IMPORTANT NOTICE: The gscii plus NDA (and related unpackers, like the
  sscii command) can NOT correctly unpack the GS-Shrinkit 1.1 file. You
  _MUST_ use the binscii program that was mentioned and downloaded in
  stage 1, or wait for GS-Shrinkit 1.1A.
  
  Run them Shrinkit program you just unpacked. GS-Shrinkit can be run by
  double-clicking on its icon in the Finder or the equivalent for other
  launchers. For the other programs, from the Basic ']' command in the
  disk/directory where you unpacked the program type 'CAT' to get a list
  of files. Find the filename of the program, and then '-FILENAME' to
  run it. (Replace 'FILENAME' with the name you saw in the list)
  
 5.13 How do I unpack a generic .SHK or .BSQ file?
 
  Now that you have all the files you want on your Apple II, you will
  first need to run the binscii program on any BINSCII'd files you
  downloaded, and then the Shrinkit program on the results of the
  un-binsciiing and/or any .SHK/.BXY files you downloaded. Once you're
  done with that, it's up to you to play around with the files you
  unpacked.
  
  After unpacking the .BSQ files, you'll notice that .SHK files are
  usually produced. You do not need to keep the .BSQ files around to
  unpack the .SHK files; you may delete the .BSQ file(s) at your
  convenience. Similarly, once the .SHK file is unpacked, you can delete
  it if you do not expect to need to unpack it again anytime soon.
  
 5.14 I can download .BSQ files fine, but .SHK files can't unpack. What's
 wrong?
 
  If these files are coming from a standard Apple II ftp site, such as
  those listed in section 5.2, they should unpack fine as long as you
  download the files in BINARY mode at every stage, which includes from
  the ftp site to any intermediate machines along the way. Any single
  text download will usually corrupt a .SHK file enough to make it
  impossible to unpack. Make sure that you're downloading in binary at
  each and every stage. Binscii (.BSQ) files contain enough extra
  information so that they aren't affected by ascii downloads.
  
  There are the occasional bad uploads to the ftp sites, but these tend
  to be reported quickly and dealt with. If you're having a problem with
  a file, and are very sure that the file is bad on the ftp server,
  please email the administrator to resolve the problem. Administrators
  should have tools to verify the integrity of any files on their sites,
  and deal with any problems on their end. [Administrator's email
  addresses are usually listed when you connect to a ftp site.]
  
 5.15 Apple Archive Format (aaf)
 
  Apple Archive Format was invented as a standard way to post source
  code to comp.sources.apple2. The C and Basic source code to aaf
  unpackers are available on the various FTP sites, in aaf format.
  Fortunately, files in aaf format can be turned back into source code
  with a simple text editor. Just break the file up into component files
  and remove the first character of each line.
  
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/unix
  
  Alternative location, including dox: http://www.openix.com/~jac
    _________________________________________________________________

Filetypes and dealing with files of various types

 6.1 A quick note about ProDOS filetypes
  ProDOS keeps some information about a file's type. Files can be text
  (TXT), binary (BIN), executable (SYS), fonts (FON), etc. Most other
  file systems do not have a place to store this information, so it may
  get 'lost' when you upload the file. Similarly, when you download a
  file, you may not know the file type. Most comm programs will use some
  default. For NuFX archives, this is not a big deal, since you can
  still unpack an archive if the filetype is wrong (and the archive
  protects the filetype of the files inside the archive). For other
  files, you may need to change the file's type. One utility that comes
  well recommended is File Attribute Zapper II.
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/8bit/util/fazz.2.3.bsq
 6.2 Net standard formats
  There are several formats that are used widely on the Internet. The
  most common in FTP sites are tar (.tar) and compress (.Z). From a unix
  box, to undo a Tape Archive, type 'tar -xvf filename.tar', to undo a
  compress, type 'uncompress filename.Z'. Since tar does not make the
  file smaller, and compress can only compress 1 file, many times you
  will find files that are 'tarred an feathered'. They have a '.tar.Z'
  extension. Just run uncompress then un-tar the result. Other USENET
  groups will use uuencode (.uu) to send binaries. From a unix box, just
  type 'uudecode file.uu'. BinSCII is better than uuencode because 1) It
  stores the ProDOS filetype. 2) It splits the file into manageable 12K
  chunks. 3) It does a CRC checksum on each chunk.
  Most of these 'Unix' standard formats are available on the Apple. See
  the table below.
                             Format Types
         +-------------------------------------------------------+
         |NuFX|Bin |uuen-|com- |.ZOO|Bin |LZH/| Stuff| ARC| Other|

Program | | |SCII|code |press| |Hex |LHA | -It | | |


|-|----|----|-----|-----|----|----|----|------|----|------|

Angel[1]|e| | | | X | X | | X | | X | .ZIP | BSC |c| | E | | | | | | | | | Balloon |g| X | | | | | | | | | | Binscii |e| | X | | | | | | | | | DeArc |e| | | | | | | | | D | | GSCII+ |g| | X | X | | | D | | | | .AAF | GShk |g| X | | | D | D | | | D | D | | LHext |x| | | | | | | D? | | | | Nulib |c| X | | | | | | | | | | PMPUnzip|x| | | | | | | | | | .ZIP | SciiBin |c| | D | | | | | | | | | Shrinkit|e| X | | | | | | | | | | Spectrum|g| | X | | | | X | | | | | sscii |x| | X | X | | | X | | | | | (Key: E = Encode only, D = Decode only, X = Encode and Decode) (Type: e = Apple //e, g = GS Only, x = GS EXE file, c = C Source code) [1] Angel is pretty Buggy, but it's worth a try.

   Where to get those programs listed above
  This FAQ already lists exactly where to get Binscii and GSCII+ as well
  as the Shrinkit programs, as well as the top level directories of
  several major ftp sites. To save some hunting around in the directory
  structures, Apple II versions of most archive programs are located at
  the following places:
  Caltech's Apple II Archive: apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS
  Ground: ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mirrors/caltech/ARCHIVERS
    _________________________________________________________________

6.3 What do the file extensions mean?

  Many times, people put filename extensions (extra characters at the
  end of a filename) to denote what type of file it is. Please note that
  these are just accepted standards. If a file does not indicate it's
  type, you will probably have to guess. The following is a table of
  some common filename extensions. (Note that upper/lower case usually
  doesn't matter in extensions) See the previous section (on archivers)
  for programs that will deal with these files.

Extension What is it? (What program do I use?)


---------------------------------------------------------------

Text only files:

.html  [TEXT] ASCII text file with (ascii) formatting codes. Used to
       format documents on the World Wide Web, some other places.
.htm   [TEXT] .html, but the extension got trimmed to 3 characters
.txt   [TEXT] An ASCII text file: usually English text.

Archive files:

.aaf   [TEXT] Apple Archive Format for source code (aaf.unpacker)
.ACU   Applelink Conversion Utility (Shrinkit)
.ARC   ARC Archive (IBM ARC, GS Shrinkit, //e Angel or DeArc2E)
.CPT   Compactor Pro archive (Compactor Pro on a Mac only)
.BSC   [TEXT] Binscii file. (Binscii)
.BSQ   [TEXT] Binscii'd NuFX file. (Binscii--then Shrinkit)
.BXY   NuFX archive with a Binary II header. (Shrinkit)
.BNY   BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
.BQY   NuFX or Binary II  with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
.BNX   NuFX with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
.dsk   Disk image of 140K 5.25" Apple disk. No legitimate and copyrght-
       enforcing Apple II sites use this format, so it is not covered in
       this FAQ.
.exe   [TEXT] Executioner file. May only work in DOS 3.3. See above.
         Note: .EXE generally means IBM executable (binary) program.
.gz    Gzipped file. No legal Apple II software distributed in this format.
.HQX   [TEXT] Mac BinHex file. (BinHex on Mac or GSCII+ on GS)
.LZH   LZH Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
.LHA   LHA Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
.QQ    BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
.SEA   Self-extracting archive (Usually Mac, might be Shrinkit archive)
.SIT   Mac StuffIt archive. (StuffIt on Mac (preferred) or GS ShrinkIt;
       GS Shrinkit will only decode very old StuffIt files.
.SHK   NuFX archive. (Shrinkit)
.SDK   NuFX with a shrunk disk image. (Shrinkit)
.tar   Unix Tape Archive (Unix 'tar -xvf', GS EXE tar)
.tgz   Gzipped .tar file
.uu    [TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
.uue   [TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
.ZOO   IBM Zoo Archive (GS Shrinkit or IBM ZOO program, //e Angel)
.ZIP   IBM Zip Archive (GS EXE Unzip, IBM PKUNZIP, Unix unzip, //e Angel)
       PMPUnzip
.Z     Compressed file (GS Shrinkit, Unix uncompress, //e Angel)

Common graphics file extensions:

.AVI   Windows Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
.BMP   Windows and OS/2 Bitmap format.
.GIF   Graphics Interchange Format: Compressed picture.
       (IIGIF for //e, many programs for all other computers)
.JPG   Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
.JPEG  Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
.MOV   Quicktime Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
.MPG   Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
.MPEG  Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
.TIFF  Graphics format (GS SHR Convert and others)

Common sound file extensions:

.AU    Sun (unix) audio format. rSounder 3 can read, AudioZap 2.0 can
       read/write.
.MOD   Amiga Music file. Some GS programs can read & play these.
.WAV   Windows file. rSounder 3 can read 8-bit WAVs, AudioZap 2.0 for GS
       can read/write, other programs can guess at reading
  All 'text only files' files can usually be opened directly in any word
  processor, assuming they were downloaded in ascii mode. (Downloading a
  text file in binary mode from a non-Apple (Apple II or Macintosh)
  machine will probably be formatted incorrectly.)
  All of these types, except the ones marked [TEXT] are BINARY files.
  Binary files cannot be sent over e-mail, posted to the newsgroups or
  FTP'd in text mode. You must FTP them in binary mode (see the section
  on FTP). You can download either with kermit, X-,Y- or Z-Modem.
  See the next few sections for how to use transfer text, pictures,
  general graphics, and sound/music files.
  Generally, anything labeled as 'Archive' above can and do contain
  multiple files, and even subdirectories. Most archivers (except for
  tar) also compress the files so that they take less disk space and
  time needed to download them.
  Sometimes you will find multiple filename extensions. Simply take the
  filename extensions apart one at a time starting with the rightmost
  and you should be able to reconstruct the original file. (i.e.
  somefile.bsq.tar.Z would mean: uncompress, untar, unbinscii, then
  unShrink to get the original file!)
  6.4 How do I USE stuff I have transferred to/from an IBM/Mac?
  A:If you get a 'File Type Mismatch' error on when trying to read a
  file you transferred via a mac, then you will need to remove the
  resource fork from the file. See the section on file transfer from
  Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.
  In general, only certain types of files can be usefully transferred
  back-and-forth between computers. One thing that you CANNOT do is run
  programs designed for another type of computer. But often you can
  transfer data files between similar programs (Spreadsheets) on
  different platforms. Here are some pointers:
  6.5 How do I use text files from other computers?
  One helpful hint is that all computers can read text files. Most word
  processors can save your file as text and import as text. But with
  text files, you will loose all your formatting (font type, centering
  and so-forth). For spreadsheets, saving as DIF will make conversion a
  breeze. Databases can be saved as tab-delimited records. (Note that in
  AppleWorks, you have to go to Print to save in these formats). Look
  for options like "Import" or "Export" (or "Save As" in the Mac world).
  If you want to do better, there are several options available. A
  commercial program called MacLinkPlus can do some conversions. Some
  Claris programs do conversions automatically. Also, AFE can convert
  between some kinds of documents (For example AppleWorks Word Processor
  to MsWorks) if you have the right translator.
  ftp://sumex-aim.stanford.edu/info-mac/util/afe-appleworks-msworks.hqx
  For IBM folks, The CrossWorks program can convert between many Apple
  and IBM formats, and even comes with a universal null modem cable.
  Alternately, If you use AppleWorks a lot, you can get SuperWorks for
  the IBM, a clone of AppleWorks. It can import AppleWorks files
  directly. For graphics, SuperConvert can convert between all
  Apple-specific graphics formats and many Mac, Amiga and IBM specific
  formats. It can also save as GIF, which is a universal standard.
  6.6 How do I view picture files from other platforms?
  A: There are quite a few programs available, each capable of reading
  different file formats:
  GIF, BMP, other lossless compressed formats:
    * IIGIF is a freeware GIF converter for any Apple II (but there is a
      patch needed for the Apple //c). It reads in GIF and saves as
      hires or double-hires.
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iigif.bsc
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iic.patch.for.
      iigif
    * MACDOWN is also freeware and lets you do the same with MacPaint
      pics.
    * A ProDOS 8 version of The Graphics Exchange from Roger Wagner
      Publishing.
  [The following software only work on an Apple IIGS]
    * Convert 3200 is one of the best programs still being sold for
      graphics conversion on the GS. A short list of file formats it
      handles is: Apple Preferred Format (GS) and PaintWorks Gold
      format, various 3200 color GS formats, as well as Windows-OS/2
      BMP, Compuserve GIF, Amiga .IFF/ PC .LBM, Paintbrush PCX, Binary
      PC and several varieties of TIFF files. It can save in a number of
      those: Apple Preferred, Windows BMP, Paintbrush PCX, TIFF, Binary
      PC and Print Shop GS.
      For more information, please see
      http://www.crl.com/~joko/convert.html.
    * The Graphics Exchange converts between many formats of graphics;
      the 16-bit version is also available from Roger Wagner Publishing.
    * Prizm v1.0 Converts .GIFs, Amiga IFFs, Raw Files, and some other
      types to Grayscale (very fast), 16 colors, 256 colors, and 3200
      colors! Size of picture limited by availabe RAM (Not sure where
      it's available from anymore either; it was commercial.)
    * SuperConvert (commercial program, published by Seven Hills
      Software) loads all GS formats, plus GIFS and other non-GS
      specific formats and saves in all GS formats (including Finder
      Icon files). It has more dithering options than most of the other
      programs, but you may have to play with it to find the best one.
      It can also save in TIFF and GIF formats if you want to move Apple
      II graphics to other machines. Version 4.0 of this program is
      faster and adds support for JPEG files.
    * SHRConvert is the earlier, shareware, predecessor to SuperConvert.
      It does a pretty good job on the types of graphics it supports.
      SHRConvert used to be available for download at
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/graphics/shrconvert.2.1.b
      sq, but it appears to be pulled off ftp sites at the author's
      request when SuperConvert was published.
    * Platinum Paint is a commercial program that can import all GS
      formats plus MacPaint. It can only save in SHR and Apple
      Preferred. Version 2.0 can make Animations too! Platinum Paint was
      sold by Scantron Quality Computers.
    * The Byte Works has a TIFF Viewer/Converter that'll read in TIFF
      files on the GS.
    * Animasia is reported to have some sort of .DXF (3D format used by
      CAD programs among others) importer; it runs only on the GS.
    * ShowPic 6 is a shareware NDA that can display most GS formats. You
      can also save the resulting graphic as a IIGS SHR painting.
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/gsos/nda/showpic.6.0.bsq
    * DreamGrafix supports all 3200 color picture types and also 16
      color and 256 color pictures. This is a very impressive commercial
      paint program with its 3200 color support. EGO Systems (now since
      out of business) has teken over distribution of this; see the
      dealers section of this FAQ for their address.
  Note: 'All GS formats' includes Superhires (type $C1 and $C0), hires,
  double-hires and PrintShop/PrintShop GS.
  JPEG and other lossy formats:
  As far as I know, JPEG viewers are only available for the Apple IIGS,
  no other Apple II machines. Seven Hills Software's commercial program
  SuperConvert (version 4.0 or later) can view and convert them. A
  number of free viewers are available at
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/graphics/viewers. Check them out
  if you're interested.
  6.7 How do I use Icons/Fonts/etc from other platforms?
  A: For reading Mac icons and such, try "Resource Spy"
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/pub/apple2/gs/util/resource.spy.bsq
  Note that Mac TrueType fonts will require you to purchase the
  'Pointless' program by Westcode software before you can actually use
  them on a GS. Once you have that installed, you can copy Mac TrueType
  fonts off a Macintosh disk and use them without any conversion through
  Resource Spy. IBM Truetype fonts are in a different and unspported
  file format. Conversion programs exist for the Macintosh (and possibly
  IBMs as well), but no GS converters exist.
  No Truetype readers exist for non-GS Apple IIs to my knowledge;
  Postscript fonts are not displayable by any Apple II programs to my
  knowledge. EGO Systems' LaserBeam 1.1 can download PostScript fonts to
  an attached Laserwriter.
  6.8 How do I listen to sounds/music from other platforms?
  Ian Schmidt has put together an Apple II Sound & Music FAQ which has
  much more detail on this subject. It is available online at
  http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html.
  For non-GS Apple IIs, there are two programs available. Michael
  Mahon's Sound Editor 2.2 is supposed to have very good playback. It is
  available from http://members.aol.com/MJMahon/sound22.shk
  'IISound' is also available for regular Apple IIs; it can play back
  many sorts of sounds, and is reported to use the same playback
  routines as Mahon's program above. You can get it from:
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/Zocalo/pub/apple2/8bit/music.and.sound/iisoun
  dv4.2.shk.
  With the expanded sound circuitry of the GS, the number of sound
  programs is dramatically increased. On the GS, the program
  'MacSoundGrabber' can read Mac sounds out of Mac files, and save them
  in a GS format; you can get it from
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/macsoundgrab.shk.
  Alternatively, you can use the 'rMover' addon for Hypercard.
  Also, programs such as rSounder 3 and AudioZAP for the GS can
  read/play WAV files and lots of other formats. rSounder can also save
  converted files (8-bit input only) as GS Resource-based sounds,
  suitable for the System 6 Sound control panel.
  With most 8-bit mono sounds, you can simply import the file as binary
  and use the editor to strip off any header and Zero (0) bytes, which
  cause the sound to stop prematurely on playback due to the way the
  GS's Ensoniq chip handles samples. 16-bit formats (a number of WAVs,
  possibly also .AUs) will sound like garbage; only rSounder 3 and
  AudioZAP 2.0 (available only after paying the $20 shareware fee for
  AudioZAP 1.x) can deal nicely with those.
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/rsounder3.shk.
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/audiozap.shk.
  About the only non-Apple II music format which is readily playable is
  the Amiga .MOD format. Many players exist, from fairly lousy to ones
  doing a pretty good job. Recommended ones are MODZap, Beatbox,
  Shellplay/Deskplay; most of those are available from
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/music/modplayers.
  6.9 How do I transfer Hypercard/Hyperstudio files?
  Apple bundled a 'rMover' program with Hypercard GS that facilitated
  the transfer of files that didn't require custom XCMDs. It can
  transfer in both directions. I've never used it, but the necessary
  files should be available with the rest of Hypercard at
  ftp.support.apple.com, pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS
  . These files are unfortunately only unpackable on Macs. The .bxy
  files (despite the filetype extension) are not readable on Apple IIs
  unless you manually strip off the 512 byte header
  Apparently the Mac version of HyperStudio will run GS HyperStudio
  stacks without conversion.
    _________________________________________________________________


There are a lot more questions with answers not included directly in this FAQ; please see http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ for more of them.

Copyright 2007 by Tony Diaz

--- End Part 3 of 4

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