Difference between revisions of "CSA2 Part 3" - wiki.apple2.org

Difference between revisions of "CSA2 Part 3"

Jump to: navigation, search
(New page: From: tdiaz-apple2-org (Tony Diaz) Newsgroups: comp.sys.apple2,comp.answers,news.answers Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Followup-To: comp.sys.apple2 Subject: comp.sys.apple2 Freque...)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
From: tdiaz-apple2-org (Tony Diaz)
+
From: tdiaz-a(in_a_circle)-apple2-dotsero-org (Tony Diaz)
 
Newsgroups: comp.sys.apple2,comp.answers,news.answers
 
Newsgroups: comp.sys.apple2,comp.answers,news.answers
 
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU
 
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU
Line 11: Line 11:
 
URL: http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ
 
URL: http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ
  
The next section is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) posting of
+
The next section is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) posting of the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup. Copyright (c) 2007 by Tony Diaz (email: tdiaz-a(in_a_circle)-apple2-dotsero-org), all rights reserved. This document can be freely copied so long as 1) it is not sold, 2) any sections reposted elsewhere from it are credited back to this FAQ with the FAQ's copyright info and official WWW location ( http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ) left in place.
the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup. Copyright (c) 2007 by Tony Diaz
 
(email: tdiaz-at-apple2-dot-org), all rights reserved. This document
 
can be freely copied so long as 1) it is not sold, 2) any sections
 
reposted elsewhere from it are credited back to this FAQ with the
 
FAQ's copyright info and official WWW location
 
( http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ) left in place.
 
  
This may not be the latest version of this FAQ-- this is an archived
+
This may not be the latest version of this FAQ-- this is an archived copy. For that, drop by http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ
copy. For that, drop by http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ
 
  
This FAQ may not be sold, bundled on disks or CD-ROMs, reprinted in
+
This FAQ may not be sold, bundled on disks or CD-ROMs, reprinted in magazines, books, periodicals, or the like without prior consent from the maintainer, Tony Diaz. Exceptions are explicitly granted for Juiced.GS and _The_Lamp. Email me for permission otherwise.
magazines, books, periodicals, or the like without prior consent from
 
the maintainer, Tony Diaz. Exceptions are explicitly granted for
 
Juiced.GS and _The_Lamp. Email me for permission otherwise.
 
 
 
Big thanks to Nathan Mates, the previous maintainer of this
 
comp.sys.apple2 FAQ, for allowing it to live on after his departure
 
and anyone who took up that mantle before him.
 
  
 +
Big thanks to Nathan Mates, the previous maintainer of this comp.sys.apple2 FAQ, for allowing it to live on after his departure and anyone who took up that mantle before him.
  
 
--- Begin part 3 of 4
 
--- Begin part 3 of 4
 
                                        
 
                                        
How do I get files off the net? 8/26/96
+
= How do I get files off the net? 8/26/96 =
 +
 
 +
Quick summary: 1: Make sure you know how to download files from ftp sites 2: Make sure you have a Binscii decoder 3: Make sure you have a Shrinkit unpacker 4: Unpack with the programs
 +
 
 +
And, in more detail, starting with a word of explanation:
 +
 
 +
[There used to be details about older Apple II packing programs in the FAQ, but as they're pretty much never used anymore, the info on them has been relegated to the 'obsolete' section of the comp.sys.apple2 FAQ at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.old.html]
 +
 
 +
== What are Binscii & Shrinkit, and why do I need them? ==
 +
 
 +
Shrinkit was written by Andy Nicholas to be able to take multiple files or disks and compress them into one file. This allows a authors to distribute programs, documentation, and anything else as one complete file. It is analogous to (but NOT the same as) Stuff-It or [PK]ZIP for Macs and IBMs. Shrinkit comes in many different forms, as is noted in the section on downloading it.
 +
 
 +
Binscii is a method of turning Apple II files into pieces that can be safely transmitted by the internet, such as usenet and email, and restored to the Apple II file later. It is used for two major reasons: 1) Since it splits files up into manageable pieces, it lets huge files be transmitted without fear of being cut short. 2) Since it translates files to strictly printable characters, mediums that cannot safely send binary files (i.e. files put through Shrinkit) such as email and usenet can send binscii'd files.
 +
 
 +
Binscii is similar to the unix 'uuencode' encoding, but it is not identical, and far superior. It allows Apple II filetype information to be restored when the file is unpacked. Secondly, binscii is usually not concerned about email or news headers (it ignores them when unpacking), and also can unpack the various pieces of a binscii'd file in any order, and the original file will be be intact as long as all the pieces were unpacked. Finally, you do not have to rejoin all the binscii pieces into one file before unpacking.
 +
 
 +
Why these two programs are so necessary in downloading is the following: pretty much all Apple II programs are first compressed with Shrinkit, and if they are to be sent via email or to comp.binaries.apple2, the shrunk file is then binscii'd. To unpack, you will need to first un-binscii the file, if appropriate, and then un-Shrink it.
 +
 
 +
Ok, fine. What do Binscii and Shrinkit files look like?
 +
 
 +
If you are given a file, first look at the end of the filename. If it ends in ".BSC" or ".BSQ" (no quotes, and upper/lower case doesn't matter), you most likely have a binscii file. Shrinkit files tend to end in ".SHK", but ".BXY" is also used.
  
  Quick summary:
+
If that isn't helpful, or you have a file without a name, then take a look at the first few lines of content. After any optional news or email header, a binscii file should look like this:
  1: Make sure you know how to download files from ftp sites
 
  2: Make sure you have a Binscii decoder
 
  3: Make sure you have a Shrinkit unpacker
 
  4: Unpack with the programs
 
 
 
  And, in more detail, starting with a word of explanation:
 
 
 
  [There used to be details about older Apple II packing programs in the
 
  FAQ, but as they're pretty much never used anymore, the info on them
 
  has been relegated to the 'obsolete' section of the comp.sys.apple2
 
  FAQ at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.old.html]
 
 
 
  5.1 What are Binscii & Shrinkit, and why do I need them? 8/26/96
 
 
 
  Shrinkit was written by Andy Nicholas to be able to take multiple
 
  files or disks and compress them into one file. This allows a authors
 
  to distribute programs, documentation, and anything else as one
 
  complete file. It is analogous to (but NOT the same as) Stuff-It or
 
  [PK]ZIP for Macs and IBMs. Shrinkit comes in many different forms, as
 
  is noted in the section on downloading it.
 
 
 
  Binscii is a method of turning Apple II files into pieces that can be
 
  safely transmitted by the internet, such as usenet and email, and
 
  restored to the Apple II file later. It is used for two major reasons:
 
  1) Since it splits files up into manageable pieces, it lets huge files
 
  be transmitted without fear of being cut short. 2) Since it translates
 
  files to strictly printable characters, mediums that cannot safely
 
  send binary files (i.e. files put through Shrinkit) such as email and
 
  usenet can send binscii'd files.
 
 
 
  Binscii is similar to the unix 'uuencode' encoding, but it is not
 
  identical, and far superior. It allows Apple II filetype information
 
  to be restored when the file is unpacked. Secondly, binscii is usually
 
  not concerned about email or news headers (it ignores them when
 
  unpacking), and also can unpack the various pieces of a binscii'd file
 
  in any order, and the original file will be be intact as long as all
 
  the pieces were unpacked. Finally, you do not have to rejoin all the
 
  binscii pieces into one file before unpacking.
 
 
 
  Why these two programs are so necessary in downloading is the
 
  following: pretty much all Apple II programs are first compressed with
 
  Shrinkit, and if they are to be sent via email or to
 
  comp.binaries.apple2, the shrunk file is then binscii'd. To unpack,
 
  you will need to first un-binscii the file, if appropriate, and then
 
  un-Shrink it.
 
 
 
  Ok, fine. What do Binscii and Shrinkit files look like?
 
 
 
  If you are given a file, first look at the end of the filename. If it
 
  ends in ".BSC" or ".BSQ" (no quotes, and upper/lower case doesn't
 
  matter), you most likely have a binscii file. Shrinkit files tend to
 
  end in ".SHK", but ".BXY" is also used.
 
 
 
  If that isn't helpful, or you have a file without a name, then take a
 
  look at the first few lines of content. After any optional news or
 
  email header, a binscii file should look like this:
 
  
 
FiLeStArTfIlEsTaRt
 
FiLeStArTfIlEsTaRt
Line 100: Line 51:
 
CFUOFR0QxAjR0MjM3YTNBlDOENkQwAQRzITM2UDN5gzNDJUQGVERyEDM1QzM4cjN
 
CFUOFR0QxAjR0MjM3YTNBlDOENkQwAQRzITM2UDN5gzNDJUQGVERyEDM1QzM4cjN
  
  The first two lines are constant throughout all binscii files; the
+
The first two lines are constant throughout all binscii files; the third contains the filename ('SOMEFILE.SHK' here) and then the encoded file.
  third contains the filename ('SOMEFILE.SHK' here) and then the encoded
+
 
  file.
+
On the other hand, a .SHK file cannot have any news or email header, and has only about 6 characters at the start (not all viewable on a normal screen, especially non-Apple IIs) that identify it. Thus, trying to look at the first few lines is pointless.
 
+
 
  On the other hand, a .SHK file cannot have any news or email header,
+
Finally, you can always try to unpack the file, as the binscii and Shrinkit programs will notify you if the file is not in the format they can unpack. As files are always binscii'd last, you should thus try and unbinscii an unknown file first, then try to unshrink it.
  and has only about 6 characters at the start (not all viewable on a
+
 
  normal screen, especially non-Apple IIs) that identify it. Thus,
+
Enough technical discussions, now on to the specifics of where and how to get binscii and shrinkit running on your system.
  trying to look at the first few lines is pointless.
+
 
 
+
 
  Finally, you can always try to unpack the file, as the binscii and
+
== Where can I get Apple II software and info on the net? 3/2/97 ==
  Shrinkit programs will notify you if the file is not in the format
+
 
  they can unpack. As files are always binscii'd last, you should thus
+
If you're looking for an OS (operating system) for your Apple II, there's pretty much no way to download it and write it to an Apple II disk without an Apple II handy. However, there are other ways of getting it; see section 7.2 of this FAQ.
  try and unbinscii an unknown file first, then try to unshrink it.
+
 
 
+
[A quick note about URL notation: For those of you with full net access, you can run a web browser (like Lynx if you are dialed in from your Apple), which will understand URLs directly. Otherwise, ignore the 'http:' ones and see the next section on how to use the FTP ones.)
  Enough technical discussions, now on to the specifics of where and how
 
  to get binscii and shrinkit running on your system.
 
 
 
    _________________________________________________________________
 
                                     
 
5.2 Where can I get Apple II software and info on the net? 3/2/97
 
  
  If you're looking for an OS (operating system) for your Apple II,
 
  there's pretty much no way to download it and write it to an Apple II
 
  disk without an Apple II handy. However, there are other ways of
 
  getting it; see section 7.2 of this FAQ.
 
 
 
  [A quick note about URL notation: For those of you with full net
 
  access, you can run a web browser (like Lynx if you are dialed in from
 
  your Apple), which will understand URLs directly. Otherwise, ignore
 
  the 'http:' ones and see the next section on how to use the FTP ones.)
 
 
 
 
Hint:
 
Hint:
      ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2
+
ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2
            ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^
 
                Hostname        Directory
 
  
  Major FTP sites and mirrors:
+
Hostname = 'apple2.caltech.edu'
 +
Directory = pub/apple2'
 +
 
 +
Major FTP sites and mirrors:
 
    
 
    
    * ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2 Maintained by Dan Zimmerman,
+
*ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2 Maintained by Dan Zimmerman, this large and well organized Apple II Archive is the best place to look for sofrware.
      this large and well organized Apple II Archive is the best place
+
*ftp.apple.com, dts/aii Apple's main ftp site. Get Technical Info, ProDOS 8 and GS System Software, etc. here.
      to look for sofrware.
+
*ftp://mirror.apple.com/mirrors/Apple_SW_Updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCa rd_IIGS_1.1/ Hypercard GS. This is also available at ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple_Support_Area/Apple.Software.Updates /US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS_1.1/
    * ftp.apple.com, dts/aii Apple's main ftp site. Get Technical Info,
+
*ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/appleII/eamon/guild/original/ Eamon (text-based RPG system for Apple IIs) adventures in DOS 3.3 or ProDOS format.
      ProDOS 8 and GS System Software, etc. here.
+
*ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2 We (The Apple II users of the internet) paid a good chunk of money for this drive, so it's the biggest, and may have the best selection, but the worst organization and disregard of legality, due to blind association with a pirate. The WWW interface at http://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/ is almost always available.
    *
+
*ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/archive/apple2 Another large Apple II archive. Once again, the WWW interface at http://www.umich.edu/~archive/apple2 can be less overloaded.
      ftp://mirror.apple.com/mirrors/Apple_SW_Updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCa
+
* ftp://ftp.hypermall.com/pub/gno or http://www.gno.org/pub/apple2/gs.specific/gno/base204/ . GNO/ME 2.0.4 distribution.
      rd_IIGS_1.1/ Hypercard GS. This is also available at
+
* http://www.openix.com/~jac Archive of all postings to comp.sources.apple2.
      ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple_Support_Area/Apple.Software.Updates
+
* ftp://names.wvu.edu/pub/apple3 - Apple III stuff
      /US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS_1.1/
 
    * ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/games/appleII/eamon/guild/original/
 
      Eamon (text-based RPG system for Apple IIs) adventures in DOS 3.3
 
      or ProDOS format.
 
    * ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2 We (The Apple II users of the
 
      internet) paid a good chunk of money for this drive, so it's the
 
      biggest, and may have the best selection, but the worst
 
      organization and disregard of legality, due to blind association
 
      with a pirate. The WWW interface at
 
      http://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/ is almost always available.
 
    * ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/archive/apple2 Another large Apple
 
      II archive. Once again, the WWW interface at
 
      http://www.umich.edu/~archive/apple2 can be less overloaded.
 
    * ftp://ftp.hypermall.com/pub/gno or
 
      http://www.gno.org/pub/apple2/gs.specific/gno/base204/ . GNO/ME
 
      2.0.4 distribution.
 
    * http://www.openix.com/~jac Archive of all postings to
 
      comp.sources.apple2.
 
    * ftp://names.wvu.edu/pub/apple3 - Apple III stuff
 
 
        
 
        
  And for information, here's some of the major resources:
+
And for information, here's some of the major resources:
 
    
 
    
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.html- Hypertext version of
+
 
      this FAQ, and even more FAQs on all sorts of questions and
+
http://www.hypermall.com/History What is the history of the various models in the Apple II series?
      subjects
 
     
 
    http://delphi.com, the best place for quality flamefree Apple II
 
  people and discussions.
 
 
 
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Applesoft Basic
 
  reference FAQ.
 
 
 
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html Apple II DOS & Commands
 
  FAQ.
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.hypermall.com/History What is the history of the various
+
http://www.gno.org/~gno/FAQ.html comp.sys.apple2.gno FAQ [For the GNO/ME multitasking environment for the Apple IIGS]
  models in the Apple II series?
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.gno.org/~gno/FAQ.html comp.sys.apple2.gno FAQ [For the
+
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/pinouts.html Pinouts for many different Apple II connectors
  GNO/ME multitasking environment for the Apple IIGS]
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/pinouts.html Pinouts for many
+
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html Apple IIGS sound and music capabilities.
  different Apple II connectors
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html Apple IIGS sound and
+
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/sys6files.html Reference of GS/OS System 6's filestructure, with notes as to which files are required, etc.
  music capabilities.
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/sys6files.html Reference of GS/OS
+
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Flopticals and Apple IIs.
  System 6's filestructure, with notes as to which files are required,
 
  etc.
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Flopticals and Apple
+
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html CDROMs and Apple IIs.
  IIs.
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html CDROMs and Apple IIs.
+
http://www.teraform.com/~lvirden/Misc/apple2-languages.txt Apple II Programmmer's Catalog of Languages and Toolkits
 
    
 
    
    http://www.teraform.com/~lvirden/Misc/apple2-languages.txt Apple II
+
http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/zip.html Upgrading and modifying Apple IIGS accelerators.
  Programmmer's Catalog of Languages and Toolkits
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/zip.html Upgrading and modifying
+
http://www.crl.com/~joko/ssii.html - ShareWare Solutions II Homepage
  Apple IIGS accelerators.
 
 
    
 
    
    http://www.crl.com/~joko/ssii.html - ShareWare Solutions II Homepage
+
http://www.tals.dis.qut.edu.au/staff/willie/ Willie Yeo's verified list of commercial Apple II products reclassified to be publically distributable.
 
    
 
    
    http://www.tals.dis.qut.edu.au/staff/willie/ Willie Yeo's verified
+
Other FTP Sites:
  list of commercial Apple II products reclassified to be publically
 
  distributable.
 
 
 
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/index.html - Nathan Mates's Apple II
 
  Links. Lots of 'em.
 
 
 
    http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/bbs.html - Mike Shecket's BBS listing
 
 
 
  Other FTP Sites:
 
 
    
 
    
    * ftp://ftp.sheppyware.ml.org/Public-FTP/ Eric Shepherd's Apple II
+
*ftp://ftp.sheppyware.ml.org/Public-FTP/ Eric Shepherd's Apple II software.
      software.
+
*ftp://ftp.ms.uky.edu/pub/appleII Mostly very old Apple II software
    * ftp://ftp.ms.uky.edu/pub/appleII Mostly very old Apple II software
+
*ftp://ftp.cc.utexas.edu/gifstuff/apple GIF viewing software for Apple IIs only. (And outdated. Major sites listed above have better selections)
    * ftp://ftp.cc.utexas.edu/gifstuff/apple GIF viewing software for
+
*ftp://info2.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive Looks like a umich mirror again
      Apple IIs only. (And outdated. Major sites listed above have
+
*ftp://syr.edu/software/kermit/appleII Kermit sources for the Apple II.
      better selections)
+
*ftp://watsun.cc.columbia.edu/kermit/a Kermit stuff in forms that look unusable to Apple II users.
    * ftp://info2.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive
 
      Looks like a umich mirror again
 
    * ftp://syr.edu/software/kermit/appleII Kermit sources for the Apple
 
      II.
 
    * ftp://watsun.cc.columbia.edu/kermit/a Kermit stuff in forms that
 
      look unusable to Apple II users.
 
 
        
 
        
  Archives of C.S.A2 Newsgroups:
+
Archives of C.S.A2 Newsgroups:
 
    
 
    
  Dejanews, http://www.dejanews.com, is an excellent searchable archive
+
Google Groups, http://groups.google.com, is an excellent searchable archive of pretty much all major usenet groups, including all of the Apple II newsgroups. It's only good back to about March 1995 as of 8/31/96, but they may be trying to extend that back.
  of pretty much all major usenet groups, including all of the Apple II
+
 
  newsgroups. It's only good back to about March 1995 as of 8/31/96, but
+
<A2Txt>Other, more limited archives:</A2Txt>
  they may be trying to extend that back.
+
 
 
+
wuarchive.wustl.edu|/usenet/comp.sources.apple2 (complete!)
  Other, more limited archives:
+
|/usenet/comp.binaries.apple2
===============================
+
?ftp.tohoku.ac.jp|/pub/news/comp.binaries.apple2
wuarchive.wustl.edu     /usenet/comp.sources.apple2 (complete!)
+
hp4nl.nluug.nl|/pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete)
                        /usenet/comp.binaries.apple2
+
mcsun.eu.net|/pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete)
?ftp.tohoku.ac.jp         /pub/news/comp.binaries.apple2
+
nic.funet.fi|/pub/archive/comp.sources.apple2 (complete?)
hp4nl.nluug.nl           /pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete)
+
relay.cs.toronto.edu|/pub/lists.1989 (1989 only)
mcsun.eu.net             /pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete)
+
 
nic.funet.fi             /pub/archive/comp.sources.apple2 (complete?)
+
If you have a Shell account, you can use 'archie' to find ftp sites with a particular file.
relay.cs.toronto.edu     /pub/lists.1989 (1989 only)
 
  
  If you have a Shell account, you can use 'archie' to find ftp sites
 
  with a particular file.
 
 
 
    _________________________________________________________________
 
 
                                        
 
                                        
5.3 How do you download files off the net?
+
== How do you download files off the net? ==
  
  This is important because once you're on the internet, most of the
+
This is important because once you're on the internet, most of the files are available only on 'ftp' and www sites. ('ftp' stands for File Transfer Protocol, and www stands for the World Wide Web, but all you need to know is where to get Apple II files from. See the section above for a list of ftp sites.)
  files are available only on 'ftp' and www sites. ('ftp' stands for
 
  File Transfer Protocol, and www stands for the World Wide Web, but all
 
  you need to know is where to get Apple II files from. See the section
 
  above for a list of ftp sites.)
 
 
    
 
    
    1. (For ProLine users) Get files to your host
+
<code>1. (For ProLine users) Get files to your host
        1. Dial up your host and log in.
+
  1. Dial up your host and log in.
        2. I'm not familiar with ProLine, so I'll be vague here. Just go
+
  2. I'm not familiar with ProLine, so I'll be vague here.  
            into the files section and look... Anyone wanna clue me in?
+
      Just go into the files section and look... Anyone wanna clue me in?
    2. (for those with a Shell account) Get files to your host
+
 
        1. Choose an FTP site from the FAQ
+
2. (for those with a Shell account) Get files to your host
        2. At your UNIX prompt, type "ftp _____" (fill in hostname)
+
  1. Choose an FTP site from the FAQ
        3. At the "Login:" prompt, type "anonymous" (or "ftp" if you are
+
  2. At your UNIX prompt, type "ftp _____" (fill in hostname)
            a bad speller like me ;)
+
  3. At the "Login:" prompt, type "anonymous" (or "ftp" if you are a bad speller like me ;)
        4. Type in your e-mail address when prompted for a password.
+
  4. Type in your e-mail address when prompted for a password.
        5. Type "bin" unless you are only getting text files
+
  5. Type "bin" unless you are only getting text files
        6. Type "cd ______" (directory) to move to the right directory.
+
  6. Type "cd ______" (directory) to move to the right directory.
        7. type "ls" to see a list of files.
+
  7. type "ls" to see a list of files.
        8. Locate each file (more "cd ___"'s and "ls"). Also, "cd .."
+
  8. Locate each file (more "cd ___"'s and "ls"). Also, "cd .." will move up a directory in the tree.)
            will move up a directory in the tree.)
+
  9. use "get ______" (filename) to get it
        9. use "get ______" (filename) to get it
+
  10. When you are done using FTP, type "quit"
        10. When you are done using FTP, type "quit"
+
</code>
    3. From a WWW browser, most browsers are not set up to download .SHK
+
 
      files in binary, which will make them impossible to unpack. There
+
 
      are some solutions to this. Dan Zimmerman has made the Apple II
+
3. From a WWW browser, most browsers are not set up to download .SHK files in binary, which will make them impossible to unpack. There are some solutions to this. Dan Zimmerman has made the Apple II archive at Caltech automatically send files in binary mode; go to http://apple2.caltech.edu/a2archive.html
      archive at Caltech automatically send files in binary mode; go to
+
 
      http://apple2.caltech.edu/a2archive.html
+
 
      If you are using Lynx, when the cursor is on the file to download,
+
If you are using Lynx, when the cursor is on the file to download, you can hit 'd' to download the file, which for most people forces a binary download. [Lynx has too many versions with the same version 'number' and possible configurations to be able to list which ones will work.]
      you can hit 'd' to download the file, which for most people forces
+
 
      a binary download. [Lynx has too many versions with the same
+
 
      version 'number' and possible configurations to be able to list
+
Using most WWW browsers under unix (Netscape, Mosaic, lynx, maybe some others) you can try editing the file '.mime.types' (no 's) in your home directory on most unix systems. (Contact your local sysadmin or guru for help on unix editors). Add the following lines to the file:
      which ones will work.]
+
 
      Using most WWW browsers under unix (Netscape, Mosaic, lynx, maybe
 
      some others) you can try editing the file '.mime.types' (no 's) in
 
      your home directory on most unix systems. (Contact your local
 
      sysadmin or guru for help on unix editors). Add the following
 
      lines to the file:
 
  
 
application/x-Shrinkit shk SHK sdk SDK
 
application/x-Shrinkit shk SHK sdk SDK
 
application/x-BinaryII bny BNY bqy BQY bxy BXY
 
application/x-BinaryII bny BNY bqy BQY bxy BXY
  This will work for most files downloaded with lynx, netscape, and
+
 
      mosaic. Non-unix browsers can do similar things, but you'll need
+
 
      to read the documentation on them.
+
This will work for most files downloaded with lynx, netscape, and mosaic. Non-unix browsers can do similar things, but you'll need to read the documentation on them.
    4. From email or comp.binaries.apple2, the files are pretty much
+
 
      always in BINSCII format, so you do not need to worry about binary
+
 
      downloading. Simply save the email or news articles to disk (most
+
4. From email or comp.binaries.apple2, the files are pretty much always in BINSCII format, so you do not need to worry about binary downloading. Simply save the email or news articles to disk (most things do have multiple parts, so be sure to get all of them), and download that to your Apple II. You can keep the posts as separate files, no need to paste them all together when saving or downloading. For a multiple part binscii file, the order in which you unpack them does not matter as long as you unpack every part. 5. Get files to your Apple II
      things do have multiple parts, so be sure to get all of them), and
+
 
      download that to your Apple II. You can keep the posts as separate
+
 
      files, no need to paste them all together when saving or
+
See the next section on transfering Apple II files.
      downloading. For a multiple part binscii file, the order in which
+
 
      you unpack them does not matter as long as you unpack every part.
+
 
    5. Get files to your Apple II
+
== How do you transfer Apple files to/from other personal computers? ==
      See the next section on transfering Apple II files.
+
 
     
+
 
  5.4 How do you transfer Apple files to/from other personal computers?
+
Normally, you cannot stick a 5.25" disk in a non-Apple II machine and have it read it. This is because the disk writing formats are different at a hardware level, and no software exists (or will exist) to let a PC read an Apple II 5.25" drive. However, with rarer addon hardware, you can bridge the gap. This has been an insolvable problem for nearly 15 years; if it could be solved in software, such a thing would exist.
 
+
 
  Normally, you cannot stick a 5.25" disk in a non-Apple II machine and
+
 
  have it read it. This is because the disk writing formats are
+
That being said, here's a list of ways that do work:
  different at a hardware level, and no software exists (or will exist)
+
 
  to let a PC read an Apple II 5.25" drive. However, with rarer addon
+
== How do I transfer DOS 3.3, Pascal, CP/M files? ==
  hardware, you can bridge the gap. This has been an insolvable problem
+
 
  for nearly 15 years; if it could be solved in software, such a thing
+
 
  would exist.
+
Unless you have a null modem (see below) and a comm program for the OS in question, you'll most likely have to use a real Apple II to transfer the files to an OS that a lot more systems can read, such as ProDOS.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The ProDOS system software, the DOS 3.3 FST (optional part of GS System 6.0 and 6.0.1), and Copy ][+ can all read and convert files on DOS 3.3 disks to ProDOS disks; all but the DOS 3.3 FST can write from ProDOS to DOS 3.3 disks. All data files should translate fine, but any program requiring a specific OS will probably not run under the wrong OS.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For translating between ProDOS, CPM, Pascal and DOS 3.3, try the program Chameleon. You have to use the 'force disk as ProDOS' option to copy to/from your hard drive.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/chameleon.bsq
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Once the file is on a ProDOS disk, you generally have a lot more transfer options available.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== How do I transfer files by [null] modem? ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
This is probably the most accessible option; it can be done by an Apple and any other computer as long as both have serial ports, cable(s) to go between them, and communications software on both sides.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Modems allow you to transfer computer data over phone lines; a null modem essentially yanks the middleman of a phone. Null modem cables (which are identical to serial printer cables) are essentially a cable which plugs into the serial port of two computers, and is wired such that when one computer sends, the other receives, and vice versa. With a communications program that supports file transfer on both ends, you can send files from one side to the other. There are a few companies selling null modem cables and the like; see the appropriate section of this FAQ- 10.2 for their info.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For those who haven't picked a program to download with, here are the better Apple II programs listed alphabetically; for other systems, you'll have to find a comparable program. All of the non-commercial programs are available from FTP sites. If you don't have a comm program already, your best bet is to have someone mail you one on a disk or buy ProTerm. (See resources).
 +
 
 
    
 
    
  That being said, here's a list of ways that do work:
+
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 
+
<A2Txt>Program</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Comp</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>''Emulations''</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Protocols</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>Notes</A2Txt>
  5.5 How do I transfer DOS 3.3, Pascal, CP/M files?
+
ANSITerm|GS$|Color ANSI|PSE X,Y,Z-modem|Editor, scrollback, etc.
 
+
Agate|E|mono|ANSI|X,(Y,Z D/L only)|Unpacks ZIP, buggy
  Unless you have a null modem (see below) and a comm program for the OS
+
ColorTerm|GS|Color ANSI|X-modem|Desktop based
  in question, you'll most likely have to use a real Apple II to
+
CommSys|E|none|X-modem|Works on ][+
  transfer the files to an OS that a lot more systems can read, such as
+
FreeTerm|GS|none|X-modem|Desktop based
  ProDOS.
+
GSVT|GS|VT-100|none|Desktop
 
+
GTerm|GS|Color ANSI|none|Written in BASIC/ML
  The ProDOS system software, the DOS 3.3 FST (optional part of GS
+
GenComm|GS|none|none|Text, Shell Compat.
  System 6.0 and 6.0.1), and Copy ][+ can all read and convert files on
+
Kermit-65|E|VT-100|Kermit, X-modem|Hard to use,Works on ][+
  DOS 3.3 disks to ProDOS disks; all but the DOS 3.3 FST can write from
+
MegaTerm|GS|Color ANSI|none|ProDOS 8
  ProDOS to DOS 3.3 disks. All data files should translate fine, but any
+
PTP|E$|VT-100|X-Modem, (Y-mdm D/L)|From Quality Computers
  program requiring a specific OS will probably not run under the wrong
+
ProTerm|E$|PSE, VT-100|Kermit, X,Y,Z-modem|From InSync
  OS.
+
SnowTerm|GS|VT-100 (+)|none|Desktop based
 
+
Spectrum|GS$|ANSI, VT100, PSE,
  For translating between ProDOS, CPM, Pascal and DOS 3.3, try the
+
||Viewdata|Kermit,X,Y,Z Modem|GS Desktop Prog
  program Chameleon. You have to use the 'force disk as ProDOS' option
+
TIC|E$|VT-100 (+)|X-modem|Small, Scripting.
  to copy to/from your hard drive.
+
Telcom|GS|VT-100, PSE|X, (Y D/L only)|Shell compat
 
+
Z-Link|E|VT-100|X-modem|Good.
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/chameleon.bsq
+
</tab>
 
+
 
  Once the file is on a ProDOS disk, you generally have a lot more
+
 
  transfer options available.
+
Key: $ = A commercial program  + = And other obscure ones
 
+
Computer:  E = works on GS and //e, GS = only works on GS
  5.6 How do I transfer files by [null] modem?
+
D/L = Download from other computer
 
+
 
  This is probably the most accessible option; it can be done by an
+
 
  Apple and any other computer as long as both have serial ports,
+
PTP = Point-To-Point. I don't think it's being sold anymore. Anyone know? See the resources section for where to buy the commercial programs.
  cable(s) to go between them, and communications software on both
+
 
  sides.
+
 
 
+
Once you are set up with a comm program on both ends, with a modem, here's how to send files: 1. Find out what file transfer protocols your Apple communications package supports. (see below for a list)
  Modems allow you to transfer computer data over phone lines; a null
+
 
  modem essentially yanks the middleman of a phone. Null modem cables
+
 
  (which are identical to serial printer cables) are essentially a cable
+
2. On your local comm program, set your file transfer type to Text (TXT) or Binary (BIN) depending on what type of file you are downloading. If there is an option to "strip incoming linefeeds", try turning it on.
  which plugs into the serial port of two computers, and is wired such
+
 
  that when one computer sends, the other receives, and vice versa. With
+
 
  a communications program that supports file transfer on both ends, you
+
3. Get your host to send you the file. I don't know about ProLine, but UNIX users can use these commands: For Z-Modem: "sz ___ ____ ____" (file names) For X-Modem: "sx ____" (one at a time) For Kermit: "kermit", then "put _____" (filename) Z-Modem is by far the fastest of the three; if you are getting random connection errors, you may need to do "sz -e ___ ____ ____" to force a safer (but slower) xfer method.
  can send files from one side to the other. There are a few companies
+
 
  selling null modem cables and the like; see the appropriate section of
+
 
  this FAQ- 10.2 for their info.
+
4. If needed, tell your local communications program to Receive. You must do this quickly, or the other host will give up trying to send the file.
 
+
 
  For those who haven't picked a program to download with, here are the
+
 
  better Apple II programs listed alphabetically; for other systems,
+
5. Write down the full pathname of the files you downloaded and where you put them. There will be a quiz later. Pathnames look like "/DISK/DIR/FILE.NAME"
  you'll have to find a comparable program. All of the non-commercial
+
 
  programs are available from FTP sites. If you don't have a comm
+
 
  program already, your best bet is to have someone mail you one on a
+
Note: If something goes wrong, hit ESC, Ctrl-X or Ctrl-C 3 times. If you can't get one protocol to work, try the next one down. Z-modem is much faster than the others. You will want to find a program that supports it.
  disk or buy ProTerm. (See resources).
+
 
 
+
 
Program  Comp Emulations    Protocols            Note
+
With a null modem, it is similar. First, you need to tell both sides that they are online. Reading the manual is strongly encouraged! This is easy for some programs, where you can just start them or set an option, and they're running. Other, like Windows 95's Hyperterminal, are almost dead set on dialing a modem first. You'll also need to set both sides to communicate at the same speed and connection parameters (8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, aka '8N1' is customary). When you've got that done successfully, you can type on either computer's keyboard and have it appear on the other's screen.
---------|----|---------------------------------------------------------------
+
 
ANSITerm  GS$ color ANSI, PSE X,Y,Z-modem         Editor, scrollback, etc.
+
 
Agate      E  mono ANSI      X,(Y,Z D/L only)    Unpacks ZIP, buggy
+
Once the null modem connection is set up, you can transfer files. From the receiving end, issue the command(s) to receive a file in some protocol, such as Kermit, X-Modem, or Z-Modem. Then, from the sending side, issue the command(s) to send a file in that same protocol. The file should then be transferred. (As above, reading the manuals and/or documentation for the software used is highly encouraged).
ColorTerm  GS  color ANSI      X-modem             Desktop based
+
 
CommSys    E  none            X-modem              Works on ][+
+
 
FreeTerm  GS  none            X-modem              Desktop based
+
A very nice null modem is the CrossWorks product, which has been taken over by Sequential Systems. It is a null modem cable as well as Apple II and IBM PC software that lets you translate certain types of files between both sides, such as Appleworks files, and keep the formatting roughly intact. See the vendors lists below.
GSVT      GS  VT-100          none                Desktop
+
 
GTerm      GS  color ANSI      none                Written in BASIC/ML
+
 
GenComm    GS  none            none                Text, Shell Compat.
+
== How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple II? ==
Kermit-65  E  VT-100          Kermit, X-modem      Hard to use,Works on ][+
+
 
MegaTerm  GS  color ANSI      none                ProDOS 8
+
 
PTP        E$, VT-100          X-Modem, (Y-mdm D/L) From Quality Computers
+
As noted above, Apple II drives write differently at a hardware level than IBM PC drives; you will not be able to write to IBM PC 5.25" disks or 720K 3.5" disks from Apple IIs unless you have special hardware.
ProTerm    E$  PSE, VT-100    Kermit, X,Y,Z-modem  From InSync
+
 
SnowTerm  GS  VT-100 (+)      none                Desktop based
+
 
Spectrum GS$  ANSI, VT100, PSE, Viewdata  Kermit,X,Y,Z Modem  GS Desktop Prog
+
If you have an Apple //e, the Bluedisk from ///SHH systeme, which lets you plug in IBM PC 3.5" and 5.25" drives to an Apple II; you should be ablt to transfer files with standard file copy programs. Another option is the AE PC Transporter card, which had PC disk drive support for 5.25" and 3.5" drives, as well as the software to translate between the two. You also get the ability to run a number of IBM PC programs on your Apple.
TIC        E$  VT-100 (+)      X-modem              Small, Scripting.
+
 
Telcom    GS  VT-100, PSE    X, (Y D/L only)      Shell compat
+
 
Z-Link    E  VT-100          X-modem              Good.
+
If you have a 3.5" drive on your system capable of reading 800K or 1.44MB disks, you can read Mac (HFS) disks of the right size directly with some pieces of software: ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu apple2/8bit/util/a2fx.8.bsq
----------Key:---------
+
 
| Key: $ = A commercial program  + = And other obscure ones
+
 
| Computer: E = works on GS and //e, GS = only works on GS
+
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/hfslink.b3.bsq
| D/L = Download from other computer
+
 
---
+
 
 +
Null modem's also an option if your Apple II has a serial port. Such a port is built into the //c, IIc+ and IIGS; you will need to purchase a card such as the Super Serial Card to add such functionality to a ][, ][+ or //e.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple IIGS? ==
 +
 
 +
With support for both 3.5" and 5.25" drives, the Apple IIGS is the best all-round platform for transferring files between various setups. First, all of the Apple II programs and methods are available to it; see the section just above this for those.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
With GS System 6.0 and 6.0.1, the GS gained the ability to read and write Macintosh 800K and 1.44MB floppies from within all programs, not just the dedicated transfer programs mentioned above for pre-GS machines. (1.44MB disks require some additional hardware, such as the Apple 1.44MB Superdrive and Superdrive controller, the Bluedisk, or SCSI Floptical drives). Use the System 6 installer (select 'Custom' install to get the list of addons) to install the HFS (Macintosh) FST on your boot disk, then reboot to load it. It may be a bit of a squeeze to fit the HFS FST and such on a 800K boot disk, and GS System 6.0/6.0.1 pretty much requires at least 1-1.25MB RAM to do stuff.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
System 6.0.1's optional MS-DOS FST allowed read-only (not write) access to MS-DOS formatted disks, though disks with Windows 95's VFAT extended names will not have the long names displayed. The GS's normal 800K drives are not capable of reading MS-DOS 720K or 1.44MB disks directly; you will need to get a 1.44MB capable drive, as listed in the paragraph above.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For the ability to write to MS-DOS disks, you will need Peter Watson's (email: paw@acslink.net.au) MSDOS utilities (latest version is 2.30), which can read/write MS-DOS formatted disks, both FAT (pre-WIN95) and VFAT (WIN95) disks, including Zip disks. It's not currently usable from within the Finder or other programs, but you need a program shell such as that included with The Byteworks' Orca series, Procyon's GNO/ME, ProSEL-16's shell, or the minimal shell included in the msdostools package.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/apple16/utils/MSDOS.util/MSDOS.TOOL S.SHK
 +
 
 +
 
 +
System 6.0 also added read-only support for Dos 3.3 and Pascal 140K disks. The Pascal FST in System 6.0.1 (and probably 6.0 also) will not recognize disks with legal punctuation in the disk name; Nathan Mates's GUPP program fixes that. See the System 6.0 mini-FAQ in this FAQ for details on where to download GUPP.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== How do I read/write Apple II files from a Mac? ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
If you can read/write Apple II 3.5" disks, Macs can usually read/write to them, but please note the many quirks noted below. Apart from the Apple //e emulation card (see below), Macs never really had 140K 5.25" support. Using a null modem is almost always an option; see above.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
With Mac System 7.5 and up, the Control Panel 'PC Exchange' lets inserted ProDOS and MS-DOS disks appear on the desktop and copy files to and from them, making the procedure rather simple. Before 7.5 (starting somewhere in Mac System 5 or 6 series), the program 'Apple File Exchange' was bundled on the system disks; it could manually (and very slowly) copy individual files, but only from within Apple File Exchange. Consult the system software disks for your Mac if you can't find these programs.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Macs downloading to Apple II disks to be read by ProDOS 8 applications is usually not an issue of directly dragging a downloaded file to the destination disk. Despite the claims of 'compatability' or 'ease of use', you're likely to need a special program to help to get a ProDOS 8 program such as BASIC.SYSTEM for Binscii, Shrinkit 3.4, Appleworks, etc., to read the files. [GS/OS can deal fine with the additions to the file, but if you're trying to get the ProDOS 8 version of binscii running, that is no help.] The usual symptom of this problem is a 'FILE TYPE MISMATCH' error on trying to read the file.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
It is reported that the Mac program 'ProTYPE' can be used as a helper app to clean up the crud Macs add to files before copying them to an Apple II. There was also another program to do the same, but it disappeared recently from the net, which is apparently "normal" for Mac ftp sites. ProTYPE is currently available online (at an Apple II based site, so it hopefully won't disappear like the last rather useful program) at ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mac/ProTYPE.hqx Consult the various Mac FAQs for information on how to download and use Mac programs. See section 1.3 of this FAQ for references on finding other FAQs.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Some have said that you can apparently change the type and creator to 'TEXT' and 'pdos', before copying it to the ProDOS disk-- that'll prevent it from adding the resource fork when writing to a ProDOS disk. Others claim that won't do the trick for them.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Once you have the ability to download .bsq files and unpack them, there are some Apple II files to remove forks. [These files are packed with Binscii. If you don't have binscii because it's got a resource fork on it, you can't use these fork removers. Thus, you'll need to deal with it on the Mac end at first.]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
HFS.LINK, listed above can apparently read out the data from either fork; there are also the programs ConvertForks 1.0 or ForkSplit 0.5.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Also, the Apple //e emulation card (available for a few models of Macs-- see the section on it) allows you to plug in a real Apple II 5.25 drive, and read files off of it.
 +
 
 +
== How do I read/write Apple II files from an IBM PC? ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
IBM PC drives operate differently from Apple II drives at a hardware level; there is NO software to overcome that. The only way to bridge the gap with only a PC or an Apple II is by using (rare) addon hardware. [Technical details: PCs use MFM disk encoding; Apple IIs use GCR. The disk controller card does the decoding of the bitstream, and if it's in the wrong format, it'll mess up the bits before software can get anywhere near it. Thus, a new disk controller card is a bare minimum.]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
If you have a Macintosh and access to an Apple II with 3.5" disks (such as most GSs), you can copy the files to a ProDOS disk and let the Mac read that disk. It can then copy them to a MS-DOS disk with the same software that read the ProDOS disks; see above for Mac specifics.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Null modem is probably the best method; as noted above, the Crossworks product from Sequential Systems is a good product that lets you transfer and translate certain Apple II and IBM PC file formats.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
There's supposedly a program that reads 1.44MB ProDOS disks on a PC (which the PC does support), but you need the ability to write such disks from the Apple II side anyhow.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
There are a few rare hardware boards that you can plug into a PC and get it to access Apple II disks; the Trackstar Plus and Quadram boards are reported to be usable in IBM PCs. (Quadram's Quadlink reportedly only supports the IBM PC XT and older; the Trackstar Plus works well in any PC with space for a very full-sized ISA board and VGA capabilities) Neither is available new anymore, and can command a premium now on the used market, as IBM PCers who sold off their Apple IIs realize the follies of their ways. :)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== How do I download and unpack binscii? ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
[If you'd rather skip this and most of the next step, Steve Cavanaugh has a disk containing this, Shrinkit 3.4, and many other useful programs. See the Resources section (10.2) below.]
 +
 
 +
 
 +
1. Binscii has many programs that can unpack it, but if you have none of them, you will need to first get 'BINSCII.TXT', the only binscii program that can be transferred without any of the others or Shrinkit. [Spectrum 2.1 and later can also unpack Binscii, so if you have a GS and want to purchase this program for general telecom use, that's an alternative.] After you have this binscii program and Shrinkit, you can unpack other binscii decoders.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
2. There are non-Apple II Binscii programs (sciibin is available in source code form ready to be compiled on unix and other platforms), should you desire, but to download and unpack Shrinkit, you will almost certainly need a minimal Binscii decoder on your Apple II. Thus, it's in your best interest to download a binscii decoder.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
3. Make sure you have a method of getting files to a ProDOS disk on your Apple. That may include downloading with a communications program, or copying to a disk from another computer. Please note that Apple II and IBM PC 5.25" and 3.5" disk formats are different at a hardware level, so without (rare) addon hardware on one or both sides, you cannot use an IBM PC to download stuff to an Apple II disk.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Macs running system 7 can write to ProDOS 3.5" 800K disks, but please note that the Macintosh system software has the bad habit of adding a "resource fork" to files. This makes them UNREADABLE from most Apple IIs, unless you run a special program on them from the Macintosh side. Please see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
If you do not have ProDOS, please contact your local Apple II User Group for a copy-- they can copy it free of charge. If you do not have a modem program, but do have a modem or null modem to another computer, Steve Cavanaugh's disk that was mentioned above has some simple comm programs. Alternatively, the commercial program ProTERM 3.1 by Intrec is by far the best general Apple II communications program, so if you have at least a 128K Enhanced Apple //e, a //c, IIc+, or Apple IIGS, it is worth it to invest in this program. See the sections on dealers below for Intrec's address and phone number.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The rest of this tutorial assumes that you have read the above sections and have a basic clue as to how to navigate the internet and download files.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
4. Download the file 'BINSCII.TXT', written by Todd Whitesel to your Apple II. A copy is linked in at Nathan Mates's Apple II Resources WWW pages, http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/binscii.txt Or, check the major Apple II ftp sites (see above), as well as ftp.ugcs.caltech.edu, pub/nathan/binscii.txt This is a text file. (Previous versions of it were named 'binscii.exe', which most people confused as being a MS-DOS executable, which the program most definitely is not.) It must be downloaded in text mode to your computer, or it will require some work to get it working. Check the ftp and [z]modem transfer options to make sure binary mode is off before downloading it to your Apple II. If you used a Macintosh to write the file to a ProDOS disk, be warned that it'll sometimes add a 'resource fork' to the file, rendering it unusable under ProDOS and Basic with a "FILE TYPE MISMATCH" error on trying to access it. To avoid that, see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for a Mac program to clean up after that problem.
 +
 
  
  PTP = Point-To-Point. I don't think it's being sold anymore. Anyone
+
5. See if you can unpack it. You will need to get to Applesoft Basic under ProDOS to do this. [ProDOS identifies itself as such when booting, and Basic is the ']' prompt available by running 'BASIC.SYSTEM' if you booted to the Finder]. From the prompt, change to the disk/directory with the BINSCII.TXT file in it. [A reference on Dos 3.3 and ProDOS commands is not part of this FAQ, but is available at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html] Next, verify that the file was transferred as a text file. From the prompt, type the following:
  know? See the resources section for where to buy the commercial
 
  programs.
 
 
 
  Once you are set up with a comm program on both ends, with a modem,
 
  here's how to send files:
 
    1. Find out what file transfer protocols your Apple communications
 
      package supports. (see below for a list)
 
    2. On your local comm program, set your file transfer type to Text
 
      (TXT) or Binary (BIN) depending on what type of file you are
 
      downloading. If there is an option to "strip incoming linefeeds",
 
      try turning it on.
 
    3. Get your host to send you the file. I don't know about ProLine,
 
      but UNIX users can use these commands:
 
      For Z-Modem: "sz ___ ____ ____" (file names)
 
      For X-Modem: "sx ____" (one at a time)
 
      For Kermit: "kermit", then "put _____" (filename)
 
      Z-Modem is by far the fastest of the three; if you are getting
 
      random connection errors, you may need to do "sz -e ___ ____ ____"
 
      to force a safer (but slower) xfer method.
 
    4. If needed, tell your local communications program to Receive. You
 
      must do this quickly, or the other host will give up trying to
 
      send the file.
 
    5. Write down the full pathname of the files you downloaded and where
 
      you put them. There will be a quiz later. Pathnames look like
 
      "/DISK/DIR/FILE.NAME"
 
      Note: If something goes wrong, hit ESC, Ctrl-X or Ctrl-C 3 times.
 
      If you can't get one protocol to work, try the next one down.
 
      Z-modem is much faster than the others. You will want to find a
 
      program that supports it.
 
     
 
  With a null modem, it is similar. First, you need to tell both sides
 
  that they are online. Reading the manual is strongly encouraged! This
 
  is easy for some programs, where you can just start them or set an
 
  option, and they're running. Other, like Windows 95's Hyperterminal,
 
  are almost dead set on dialing a modem first. You'll also need to set
 
  both sides to communicate at the same speed and connection parameters
 
  (8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, aka '8N1' is customary). When you've
 
  got that done successfully, you can type on either computer's keyboard
 
  and have it appear on the other's screen.
 
 
 
  Once the null modem connection is set up, you can transfer files. From
 
  the receiving end, issue the command(s) to receive a file in some
 
  protocol, such as Kermit, X-Modem, or Z-Modem. Then, from the sending
 
  side, issue the command(s) to send a file in that same protocol. The
 
  file should then be transferred. (As above, reading the manuals and/or
 
  documentation for the software used is highly encouraged).
 
 
 
  A very nice null modem is the CrossWorks product, which has been taken
 
  over by Sequential Systems. It is a null modem cable as well as Apple
 
  II and IBM PC software that lets you translate certain types of files
 
  between both sides, such as Appleworks files, and keep the formatting
 
  roughly intact. See the vendors lists below.
 
 
 
  5.7 How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple II?
 
 
 
  As noted above, Apple II drives write differently at a hardware level
 
  than IBM PC drives; you will not be able to write to IBM PC 5.25"
 
  disks or 720K 3.5" disks from Apple IIs unless you have special
 
  hardware.
 
 
 
  If you have an Apple //e, the Bluedisk from ///SHH systeme, which lets
 
  you plug in IBM PC 3.5" and 5.25" drives to an Apple II; you should be
 
  ablt to transfer files with standard file copy programs. Another
 
  option is the AE PC Transporter card, which had PC disk drive support
 
  for 5.25" and 3.5" drives, as well as the software to translate
 
  between the two. You also get the ability to run a number of IBM PC
 
  programs on your Apple.
 
 
 
  If you have a 3.5" drive on your system capable of reading 800K or
 
  1.44MB disks, you can read Mac (HFS) disks of the right size directly
 
  with some pieces of software:
 
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu apple2/8bit/util/a2fx.8.bsq
 
 
 
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/hfslink.b3.bsq
 
 
 
  Null modem's also an option if your Apple II has a serial port. Such a
 
  port is built into the //c, IIc+ and IIGS; you will need to purchase a
 
  card such as the Super Serial Card to add such functionality to a ][,
 
  ][+ or //e.
 
 
 
  5.8 How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple IIGS?
 
 
 
  With support for both 3.5" and 5.25" drives, the Apple IIGS is the
 
  best all-round platform for transferring files between various setups.
 
  First, all of the Apple II programs and methods are available to it;
 
  see the section just above this for those.
 
 
 
  With GS System 6.0 and 6.0.1, the GS gained the ability to read and
 
  write Macintosh 800K and 1.44MB floppies from within all programs, not
 
  just the dedicated transfer programs mentioned above for pre-GS
 
  machines. (1.44MB disks require some additional hardware, such as the
 
  Apple 1.44MB Superdrive and Superdrive controller, the Bluedisk, or
 
  SCSI Floptical drives). Use the System 6 installer (select 'Custom'
 
  install to get the list of addons) to install the HFS (Macintosh) FST
 
  on your boot disk, then reboot to load it. It may be a bit of a
 
  squeeze to fit the HFS FST and such on a 800K boot disk, and GS System
 
  6.0/6.0.1 pretty much requires at least 1-1.25MB RAM to do stuff.
 
 
 
  System 6.0.1's optional MS-DOS FST allowed read-only (not write)
 
  access to MS-DOS formatted disks, though disks with Windows 95's VFAT
 
  extended names will not have the long names displayed. The GS's normal
 
  800K drives are not capable of reading MS-DOS 720K or 1.44MB disks
 
  directly; you will need to get a 1.44MB capable drive, as listed in
 
  the paragraph above.
 
 
 
  For the ability to write to MS-DOS disks, you will need Peter Watson's
 
  (email: paw@acslink.net.au) MSDOS utilities (latest version is 2.30),
 
  which can read/write MS-DOS formatted disks, both FAT (pre-WIN95) and
 
  VFAT (WIN95) disks, including Zip disks. It's not currently usable
 
  from within the Finder or other programs, but you need a program shell
 
  such as that included with The Byteworks' Orca series, Procyon's
 
  GNO/ME, ProSEL-16's shell, or the minimal shell included in the
 
  msdostools package.
 
 
 
  ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/apple16/utils/MSDOS.util/MSDOS.TOOL
 
  S.SHK
 
 
 
  System 6.0 also added read-only support for Dos 3.3 and Pascal 140K
 
  disks. The Pascal FST in System 6.0.1 (and probably 6.0 also) will not
 
  recognize disks with legal punctuation in the disk name; Nathan
 
  Mates's GUPP program fixes that. See the System 6.0 mini-FAQ in this
 
  FAQ for details on where to download GUPP.
 
 
 
  5.9 How do I read/write Apple II files from a Mac?
 
 
 
  If you can read/write Apple II 3.5" disks, Macs can usually read/write
 
  to them, but please note the many quirks noted below. Apart from the
 
  Apple //e emulation card (see below), Macs never really had 140K 5.25"
 
  support. Using a null modem is almost always an option; see above.
 
 
 
  With Mac System 7.5 and up, the Control Panel 'PC Exchange' lets
 
  inserted ProDOS and MS-DOS disks appear on the desktop and copy files
 
  to and from them, making the procedure rather simple. Before 7.5
 
  (starting somewhere in Mac System 5 or 6 series), the program 'Apple
 
  File Exchange' was bundled on the system disks; it could manually (and
 
  very slowly) copy individual files, but only from within Apple File
 
  Exchange. Consult the system software disks for your Mac if you can't
 
  find these programs.
 
 
 
  Macs downloading to Apple II disks to be read by ProDOS 8 applications
 
  is usually not an issue of directly dragging a downloaded file to the
 
  destination disk. Despite the claims of 'compatability' or 'ease of
 
  use', you're likely to need a special program to help to get a ProDOS
 
  8 program such as BASIC.SYSTEM for Binscii, Shrinkit 3.4, Appleworks,
 
  etc., to read the files. [GS/OS can deal fine with the additions to
 
  the file, but if you're trying to get the ProDOS 8 version of binscii
 
  running, that is no help.] The usual symptom of this problem is a
 
  'FILE TYPE MISMATCH' error on trying to read the file.
 
 
 
  It is reported that the Mac program 'ProTYPE' can be used as a helper
 
  app to clean up the crud Macs add to files before copying them to an
 
  Apple II. There was also another program to do the same, but it
 
  disappeared recently from the net, which is apparently "normal" for
 
  Mac ftp sites. ProTYPE is currently available online (at an Apple II
 
  based site, so it hopefully won't disappear like the last rather
 
  useful program) at
 
  ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mac/ProTYPE.hqx
 
  Consult the various Mac FAQs for information on how to download and
 
  use Mac programs. See section 1.3 of this FAQ for references on
 
  finding other FAQs.
 
 
 
  Some have said that you can apparently change the type and creator to
 
  'TEXT' and 'pdos', before copying it to the ProDOS disk-- that'll
 
  prevent it from adding the resource fork when writing to a ProDOS
 
  disk. Others claim that won't do the trick for them.
 
 
 
  Once you have the ability to download .bsq files and unpack them,
 
  there are some Apple II files to remove forks. [These files are packed
 
  with Binscii. If you don't have binscii because it's got a resource
 
  fork on it, you can't use these fork removers. Thus, you'll need to
 
  deal with it on the Mac end at first.]
 
 
 
  HFS.LINK, listed above can apparently read out the data from either
 
  fork; there are also the programs ConvertForks 1.0 or ForkSplit 0.5.
 
 
 
  Also, the Apple //e emulation card (available for a few models of
 
  Macs-- see the section on it) allows you to plug in a real Apple II
 
  5.25 drive, and read files off of it.
 
 
 
  5.10 How do I read/write Apple II files from an IBM PC?
 
 
 
  IBM PC drives operate differently from Apple II drives at a hardware
 
  level; there is NO software to overcome that. The only way to bridge
 
  the gap with only a PC or an Apple II is by using (rare) addon
 
  hardware. [Technical details: PCs use MFM disk encoding; Apple IIs use
 
  GCR. The disk controller card does the decoding of the bitstream, and
 
  if it's in the wrong format, it'll mess up the bits before software
 
  can get anywhere near it. Thus, a new disk controller card is a bare
 
  minimum.]
 
 
 
  If you have a Macintosh and access to an Apple II with 3.5" disks
 
  (such as most GSs), you can copy the files to a ProDOS disk and let
 
  the Mac read that disk. It can then copy them to a MS-DOS disk with
 
  the same software that read the ProDOS disks; see above for Mac
 
  specifics.
 
 
 
  Null modem is probably the best method; as noted above, the Crossworks
 
  product from Sequential Systems is a good product that lets you
 
  transfer and translate certain Apple II and IBM PC file formats.
 
 
 
  There's supposedly a program that reads 1.44MB ProDOS disks on a PC
 
  (which the PC does support), but you need the ability to write such
 
  disks from the Apple II side anyhow.
 
 
 
  There are a few rare hardware boards that you can plug into a PC and
 
  get it to access Apple II disks; the Trackstar Plus and Quadram boards
 
  are reported to be usable in IBM PCs. (Quadram's Quadlink reportedly
 
  only supports the IBM PC XT and older; the Trackstar Plus works well
 
  in any PC with space for a very full-sized ISA board and VGA
 
  capabilities) Neither is available new anymore, and can command a
 
  premium now on the used market, as IBM PCers who sold off their Apple
 
  IIs realize the follies of their ways. :)
 
 
 
  5.11 How do I download and unpack binscii?
 
 
 
  [If you'd rather skip this and most of the next step, Steve Cavanaugh
 
  has a disk containing this, Shrinkit 3.4, and many other useful
 
  programs. See the Resources section (10.2) below.]
 
    1. Binscii has many programs that can unpack it, but if you have none
 
      of them, you will need to first get 'BINSCII.TXT', the only
 
      binscii program that can be transferred without any of the others
 
      or Shrinkit. [Spectrum 2.1 and later can also unpack Binscii, so
 
      if you have a GS and want to purchase this program for general
 
      telecom use, that's an alternative.] After you have this binscii
 
      program and Shrinkit, you can unpack other binscii decoders.
 
    2. There are non-Apple II Binscii programs (sciibin is available in
 
      source code form ready to be compiled on unix and other
 
      platforms), should you desire, but to download and unpack
 
      Shrinkit, you will almost certainly need a minimal Binscii decoder
 
      on your Apple II. Thus, it's in your best interest to download a
 
      binscii decoder.
 
    3. Make sure you have a method of getting files to a ProDOS disk on
 
      your Apple. That may include downloading with a communications
 
      program, or copying to a disk from another computer. Please note
 
      that Apple II and IBM PC 5.25" and 3.5" disk formats are different
 
      at a hardware level, so without (rare) addon hardware on one or
 
      both sides, you cannot use an IBM PC to download stuff to an Apple
 
      II disk.
 
      Macs running system 7 can write to ProDOS 3.5" 800K disks, but
 
      please note that the Macintosh system software has the bad habit
 
      of adding a "resource fork" to files. This makes them UNREADABLE
 
      from most Apple IIs, unless you run a special program on them from
 
      the Macintosh side. Please see the section on file transfer from
 
      Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.
 
      If you do not have ProDOS, please contact your local Apple II User
 
      Group for a copy-- they can copy it free of charge. If you do not
 
      have a modem program, but do have a modem or null modem to another
 
      computer, Steve Cavanaugh's disk that was mentioned above has some
 
      simple comm programs. Alternatively, the commercial program
 
      ProTERM 3.1 by Intrec is by far the best general Apple II
 
      communications program, so if you have at least a 128K Enhanced
 
      Apple //e, a //c, IIc+, or Apple IIGS, it is worth it to invest in
 
      this program. See the sections on dealers below for Intrec's
 
      address and phone number.
 
      The rest of this tutorial assumes that you have read the above
 
      sections and have a basic clue as to how to navigate the internet
 
      and download files.
 
    4. Download the file 'BINSCII.TXT', written by Todd Whitesel to your
 
      Apple II. A copy is linked in at Nathan Mates's Apple II Resources
 
      WWW pages, http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/binscii.txt Or, check
 
      the major Apple II ftp sites (see above), as well as
 
      ftp.ugcs.caltech.edu, pub/nathan/binscii.txt
 
      This is a text file. (Previous versions of it were named
 
      'binscii.exe', which most people confused as being a MS-DOS
 
      executable, which the program most definitely is not.) It must be
 
      downloaded in text mode to your computer, or it will require some
 
      work to get it working. Check the ftp and [z]modem transfer
 
      options to make sure binary mode is off before downloading it to
 
      your Apple II.
 
      If you used a Macintosh to write the file to a ProDOS disk, be
 
      warned that it'll sometimes add a 'resource fork' to the file,
 
      rendering it unusable under ProDOS and Basic with a "FILE TYPE
 
      MISMATCH" error on trying to access it. To avoid that, see the
 
      section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for a Mac
 
      program to clean up after that problem.
 
    5. See if you can unpack it. You will need to get to Applesoft Basic
 
      under ProDOS to do this. [ProDOS identifies itself as such when
 
      booting, and Basic is the ']' prompt available by running
 
      'BASIC.SYSTEM' if you booted to the Finder]. From the prompt,
 
      change to the disk/directory with the BINSCII.TXT file in it. [A
 
      reference on Dos 3.3 and ProDOS commands is not part of this FAQ,
 
      but is available at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html]
 
      Next, verify that the file was transferred as a text file. From
 
      the prompt, type the following:
 
  
 +
<code>
 
PR#3
 
PR#3
 
CATALOG
 
CATALOG
  If the "PR#3" command causes your computer to crash, hang, or display
+
</code>
      garbage, you do not have an 80-column card in the normal place.
+
 
      [This is rare, and only happens on ][+s, or stock //es.] Reboot
+
If the "PR#3" command causes your computer to crash, hang, or display garbage, you do not have an 80-column card in the normal place. [This is rare, and only happens on ][+s, or stock //es.] Reboot your computer and try again without the PR#3 command. The catalog should have a line like the following (though the date and time will vary)
      your computer and try again without the PR#3 command. The catalog
+
 
      should have a line like the following (though the date and time
+
<code>BINSCII.TXT      TXT      12  20-AUG-96  20-AUG-96  3:14    5645</code>
      will vary)
+
 
 +
[If not in 80-column mode, that'll be wrapped to 2 lines.] Anyhow, the number we wanted was the very last number, which should be 5645. If that number is 5737, you downloaded in binary mode off an IBM PC. That's fixable. If the number is 512, you disregarded the warnings above about how the Macintosh will make an Apple II file unreadable; see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for a Mac program to clean up after that problem. Also, note the file type in the second column, which is 'TXT' here. If it is already TXT, you can skip forward to step 5. Fixing the filetype. First, note what it currently is. If it's not 'TXT', common alternatives are 'BIN' or '$00', but almost anything is possible. The second and fourth line of the following commands, assume it's '$00', with file length 5645. Modify those two values to match what you saw in the catalog listing above:
  
BINSCII.TXT      TXT      12  20-AUG-96  20-AUG-96  3:14    5645
 
  [If not in 80-column mode, that'll be wrapped to 2 lines.] Anyhow, the
 
      number we wanted was the very last number, which should be 5645.
 
      If that number is 5737, you downloaded in binary mode off an IBM
 
      PC. That's fixable. If the number is 512, you disregarded the
 
      warnings above about how the Macintosh will make an Apple II file
 
      unreadable; see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to
 
      Apple II for a Mac program to clean up after that problem.
 
      Also, note the file type in the second column, which is 'TXT'
 
      here. If it is already TXT, you can skip forward to step 5. Fixing
 
      the filetype. First, note what it currently is. If it's not 'TXT',
 
      common alternatives are 'BIN' or '$00', but almost anything is
 
      possible. The second and fourth line of the following commands,
 
      assume it's '$00', with file length 5645. Modify those two values
 
      to match what you saw in the catalog listing above:
 
  
RENAME BINSCII.TXT,BINSCII.ORIG
+
<code>RENAME BINSCII.TXT,BINSCII.ORIG
 
BLOAD BINSCII.ORIG,A$2000,T$00,L5645
 
BLOAD BINSCII.ORIG,A$2000,T$00,L5645
 
CREATE BINSCII.TXT,TTXT
 
CREATE BINSCII.TXT,TTXT
BSAVE BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L5645
+
BSAVE BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L5645</code>
   This first renames the old file, loads it up, creates a file of the
+
    
      right length and then writes the new file.
+
This first renames the old file, loads it up, creates a file of the right length and then writes the new file. 6. Now that the file type is correct, trying to install binscii. Type the following:
    6. Now that the file type is correct, trying to install binscii. Type
 
      the following:
 
  
EXEC BINSCII.TXT
+
<code>EXEC BINSCII.TXT</code> If you get a lot of ?SYNTAX ERRORs and beeps, then you most likely did not download it in ascii mode. You should try again, making sure of ascii mode, or try typing in this program. If the file size you got from the CATALOG above is not 5645, change the 5645 in line 10 to whatever it is.
  If you get a lot of ?SYNTAX ERRORs and beeps, then you most likely did
 
      not download it in ascii mode. You should try again, making sure
 
      of ascii mode, or try typing in this program. If the file size you
 
      got from the CATALOG above is not 5645, change the 5645 in line 10
 
      to whatever it is.
 
  
10 D$=CHR$(4): L=5645
+
<code>10 D$=CHR$(4): L=5645
 
20 PRINT D$"BLOAD BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L
 
20 PRINT D$"BLOAD BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L
 
30 FOR I=8192 TO 8192+L: IF PEEK(I)=10 THEN POKE I,13
 
30 FOR I=8192 TO 8192+L: IF PEEK(I)=10 THEN POKE I,13
Line 732: Line 415:
 
60 PRINT D$"CREATE BINSCII2.TXT,TTXT"
 
60 PRINT D$"CREATE BINSCII2.TXT,TTXT"
 
70 PRINT D$"BSAVE BINSCII2.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L
 
70 PRINT D$"BSAVE BINSCII2.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L
  Use the basic command 'RUN' (no 's) to run this program. After it is
+
</code>
      done, you should have a better chance at being able to "EXEC
+
 
      BINSCII2.TXT" and run it.
+
Use the basic command 'RUN' (no 's) to run this program. After it is done, you should have a better chance at being able to "EXEC BINSCII2.TXT" and run it.
    7. After all of this is done, you should have the 'BINSCII.SYSTEM'
+
 
      program on the disk/directory you EXECd binscii from. To run it,
+
7. After all of this is done, you should have the 'BINSCII.SYSTEM' program on the disk/directory you EXECd binscii from. To run it, type
      type
 
  
 
-BINSCII
 
-BINSCII
  That should start it. For now, with no files to decompress, just exit
+
 
      it. Congratulations, you can now unpack BINSCII files.
+
That should start it. For now, with no files to decompress, just exit it. Congratulations, you can now unpack BINSCII files.
    8. There are fancier BINSCII decoders, but this one is the only that
+
 
      can be easily transferred. If you have a GS, you might want to
+
 
      consider downloading the gsciiplus program from some of the
+
8. There are fancier BINSCII decoders, but this one is the only that can be easily transferred. If you have a GS, you might want to consider downloading the gsciiplus program from some of the following ftp sites: apple2.archive.umich.edu, apple2/gs/archivers/gscii.bsc apple2.caltech.edu pub/apple2/addons/nda/gscii231.shk However, to unpack this, you will need a Shrinkit program (detailed in the next section) to unpack them before you can use them. Once unpacked, you will need to copy the 'gsciiplus' NDA to the DESK.ACCS folder inside the SYSTEM folder on your boot GS/OS disk.
      following ftp sites:
+
 
      apple2.archive.umich.edu, apple2/gs/archivers/gscii.bsc
+
 
      apple2.caltech.edu pub/apple2/addons/nda/gscii231.shk
+
== How do I download and unpack a Shrinkit unpacker? ==
      However, to unpack this, you will need a Shrinkit program
+
 
      (detailed in the next section) to unpack them before you can use
+
Ok, getting and downloading binscii is the hard part, promise. Because binscii takes care of the worry of filetypes, end of lines and the like, you don't really need to worry about those problems again.
      them. Once unpacked, you will need to copy the 'gsciiplus' NDA to
+
 
      the DESK.ACCS folder inside the SYSTEM folder on your boot GS/OS
+
Which Shrinkit program you should download depends on which model of Apple II you have. These programs are listed in increasing order of features and better user interfaces, so Unshrink ][+ will run on pretty much anything that you got binscii running on, while GS-Shrinkit 1.1 will only run Apple IIGSs. Apple IIGS programs can have file formats known as 'forked files' which ProDOS 8 and regular Shrinkit cannot unpack, so if you wish to download and unpack most GS programs, GS-Shrinkit is required. (The exceptions are demos and the like distributed as a shrunk copy of a disk)
      disk.
+
 
     
+
At least an Apple ][+ with 64K running ProDOS:
  5.12 How do I download and unpack a Shrinkit unpacker?
+
 
 
+
Your only option is Unshrink ][+ and Autounshrink, available via ftp from
  Ok, getting and downloading binscii is the hard part, promise. Because
 
  binscii takes care of the worry of filetypes, end of lines and the
 
  like, you don't really need to worry about those problems again.
 
 
 
  Which Shrinkit program you should download depends on which model of
 
  Apple II you have. These programs are listed in increasing order of
 
  features and better user interfaces, so Unshrink ][+ will run on
 
  pretty much anything that you got binscii running on, while
 
  GS-Shrinkit 1.1 will only run Apple IIGSs. Apple IIGS programs can
 
  have file formats known as 'forked files' which ProDOS 8 and regular
 
  Shrinkit cannot unpack, so if you wish to download and unpack most GS
 
  programs, GS-Shrinkit is required. (The exceptions are demos and the
 
  like distributed as a shrunk copy of a disk)
 
 
 
  At least an Apple ][+ with 64K running ProDOS:
 
 
            
 
            
          Your only option is Unshrink ][+ and Autounshrink, available
+
apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/unshk2plus.bsc
          via ftp from
+
apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/autounshk.bsq
 
            
 
            
          apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/unshk2plus.bsc
+
At least an Enhanced Apple //e with 128K, or //c, IIc+, IIGS:
          apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/autounshk.bsq
+
 
         
+
Although you can run Unshrink ][+, Shrinkit 3.4 is far better. Get apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/shrinkit34.bsc
  At least an Enhanced Apple //e with 128K, or //c, IIc+, IIGS:
+
 
         
+
At least an Apple IIGS with at least 1.5MB Ram, running GS/OS System 5.0.4 or later, hard drive recommended:
          Although you can run Unshrink ][+, Shrinkit 3.4 is far better.
+
 
          Get
+
GS-Shrinkit is the best choice, though if you spend most of your time in ProDOS 8, you may also want to get Shrinkit 3.4 as well as detailed above. You can get GS-Shrinkit from apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/gshk11.bsc
          apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/shrinkit34.bsc
+
 
         
+
Download the appropriate file(s) to your computer, and unpack them with the binscii decoder.
  At least an Apple IIGS with at least 1.5MB Ram, running GS/OS System
+
 
          5.0.4 or later, hard drive recommended:
+
IMPORTANT NOTICE: The gscii plus NDA (and related unpackers, like the sscii command) can NOT correctly unpack the GS-Shrinkit 1.1 file. You _MUST_ use the binscii program that was mentioned and downloaded in stage 1, or wait for GS-Shrinkit 1.1A.
         
+
 
          GS-Shrinkit is the best choice, though if you spend most of
+
Run them Shrinkit program you just unpacked. GS-Shrinkit can be run by double-clicking on its icon in the Finder or the equivalent for other launchers. For the other programs, from the Basic ']' command in the disk/directory where you unpacked the program type 'CAT' to get a list of files. Find the filename of the program, and then '-FILENAME' to run it. (Replace 'FILENAME' with the name you saw in the list)
          your time in ProDOS 8, you may also want to get Shrinkit 3.4 as
+
 
          well as detailed above. You can get GS-Shrinkit from
+
== How do I unpack a generic .SHK or .BSQ file? ==
          apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/gshk11.bsc
+
 
         
+
Now that you have all the files you want on your Apple II, you will first need to run the binscii program on any BINSCII'd files you downloaded, and then the Shrinkit program on the results of the un-binsciiing and/or any .SHK/.BXY files you downloaded. Once you're done with that, it's up to you to play around with the files you unpacked.
  Download the appropriate file(s) to your computer, and unpack them
+
 
  with the binscii decoder.
+
After unpacking the .BSQ files, you'll notice that .SHK files are usually produced. You do not need to keep the .BSQ files around to unpack the .SHK files; you may delete the .BSQ file(s) at your convenience. Similarly, once the .SHK file is unpacked, you can delete it if you do not expect to need to unpack it again anytime soon.
 
+
 
  IMPORTANT NOTICE: The gscii plus NDA (and related unpackers, like the
+
== I can download .BSQ files fine, but .SHK files can't unpack. What's wrong? ==
  sscii command) can NOT correctly unpack the GS-Shrinkit 1.1 file. You
+
 
  _MUST_ use the binscii program that was mentioned and downloaded in
+
 
  stage 1, or wait for GS-Shrinkit 1.1A.
+
If these files are coming from a standard Apple II ftp site, such as those listed in section 5.2, they should unpack fine as long as you download the files in BINARY mode at every stage, which includes from the ftp site to any intermediate machines along the way. Any single text download will usually corrupt a .SHK file enough to make it impossible to unpack. Make sure that you're downloading in binary at each and every stage. Binscii (.BSQ) files contain enough extra information so that they aren't affected by ascii downloads.
 
+
 
  Run them Shrinkit program you just unpacked. GS-Shrinkit can be run by
+
There are the occasional bad uploads to the ftp sites, but these tend to be reported quickly and dealt with. If you're having a problem with a file, and are very sure that the file is bad on the ftp server, please email the administrator to resolve the problem. Administrators should have tools to verify the integrity of any files on their sites, and deal with any problems on their end. [Administrator's email addresses are usually listed when you connect to a ftp site.]
  double-clicking on its icon in the Finder or the equivalent for other
+
 
  launchers. For the other programs, from the Basic ']' command in the
+
== Apple Archive Format (aaf)==
  disk/directory where you unpacked the program type 'CAT' to get a list
+
 
  of files. Find the filename of the program, and then '-FILENAME' to
+
 
  run it. (Replace 'FILENAME' with the name you saw in the list)
+
Apple Archive Format was invented as a standard way to post source code to comp.sources.apple2. The C and Basic source code to aaf unpackers are available on the various FTP sites, in aaf format. Fortunately, files in aaf format can be turned back into source code with a simple text editor. Just break the file up into component files and remove the first character of each line.
 
+
 
  5.13 How do I unpack a generic .SHK or .BSQ file?
+
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/unix
 
+
 
  Now that you have all the files you want on your Apple II, you will
+
Alternative location, including dox: http://www.openix.com/~jac
  first need to run the binscii program on any BINSCII'd files you
 
  downloaded, and then the Shrinkit program on the results of the
 
  un-binsciiing and/or any .SHK/.BXY files you downloaded. Once you're
 
  done with that, it's up to you to play around with the files you
 
  unpacked.
 
 
 
  After unpacking the .BSQ files, you'll notice that .SHK files are
 
  usually produced. You do not need to keep the .BSQ files around to
 
  unpack the .SHK files; you may delete the .BSQ file(s) at your
 
  convenience. Similarly, once the .SHK file is unpacked, you can delete
 
  it if you do not expect to need to unpack it again anytime soon.
 
 
 
  5.14 I can download .BSQ files fine, but .SHK files can't unpack. What's
 
  wrong?
 
 
 
  If these files are coming from a standard Apple II ftp site, such as
 
  those listed in section 5.2, they should unpack fine as long as you
 
  download the files in BINARY mode at every stage, which includes from
 
  the ftp site to any intermediate machines along the way. Any single
 
  text download will usually corrupt a .SHK file enough to make it
 
  impossible to unpack. Make sure that you're downloading in binary at
 
  each and every stage. Binscii (.BSQ) files contain enough extra
 
  information so that they aren't affected by ascii downloads.
 
 
 
  There are the occasional bad uploads to the ftp sites, but these tend
 
  to be reported quickly and dealt with. If you're having a problem with
 
  a file, and are very sure that the file is bad on the ftp server,
 
  please email the administrator to resolve the problem. Administrators
 
  should have tools to verify the integrity of any files on their sites,
 
  and deal with any problems on their end. [Administrator's email
 
  addresses are usually listed when you connect to a ftp site.]
 
 
 
  5.15 Apple Archive Format (aaf)
 
 
 
  Apple Archive Format was invented as a standard way to post source
 
  code to comp.sources.apple2. The C and Basic source code to aaf
 
  unpackers are available on the various FTP sites, in aaf format.
 
  Fortunately, files in aaf format can be turned back into source code
 
  with a simple text editor. Just break the file up into component files
 
  and remove the first character of each line.
 
 
 
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/unix
 
 
 
  Alternative location, including dox: http://www.openix.com/~jac
 
  
    _________________________________________________________________
 
  
 
Filetypes and dealing with files of various types
 
Filetypes and dealing with files of various types
  
  6.1 A quick note about ProDOS filetypes
+
= A quick note about ProDOS filetypes =
  
  ProDOS keeps some information about a file's type. Files can be text
+
ProDOS keeps some information about a file's type. Files can be text (TXT), binary (BIN), executable (SYS), fonts (FON), etc. Most other file systems do not have a place to store this information, so it may get 'lost' when you upload the file. Similarly, when you download a file, you may not know the file type. Most comm programs will use some default. For NuFX archives, this is not a big deal, since you can still unpack an archive if the filetype is wrong (and the archive protects the filetype of the files inside the archive). For other files, you may need to change the file's type. One utility that comes well recommended is File Attribute Zapper II.
  (TXT), binary (BIN), executable (SYS), fonts (FON), etc. Most other
 
  file systems do not have a place to store this information, so it may
 
  get 'lost' when you upload the file. Similarly, when you download a
 
  file, you may not know the file type. Most comm programs will use some
 
  default. For NuFX archives, this is not a big deal, since you can
 
  still unpack an archive if the filetype is wrong (and the archive
 
  protects the filetype of the files inside the archive). For other
 
  files, you may need to change the file's type. One utility that comes
 
  well recommended is File Attribute Zapper II.
 
  
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/8bit/util/fazz.2.3.bsq
+
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/8bit/util/fazz.2.3.bsq
  
  6.2 Net standard formats
+
== Net standard formats ==
  
  There are several formats that are used widely on the Internet. The
+
There are several formats that are used widely on the Internet. The most common in FTP sites are tar (.tar) and compress (.Z). From a unix box, to undo a Tape Archive, type 'tar -xvf filename.tar', to undo a compress, type 'uncompress filename.Z'. Since tar does not make the file smaller, and compress can only compress 1 file, many times you will find files that are 'tarred an feathered'. They have a '.tar.Z' extension. Just run uncompress then un-tar the result. Other USENET groups will use uuencode (.uu) to send binaries. From a unix box, just type 'uudecode file.uu'. BinSCII is better than uuencode because 1) It stores the ProDOS filetype. 2) It splits the file into manageable 12K chunks. 3) It does a CRC checksum on each chunk.
  most common in FTP sites are tar (.tar) and compress (.Z). From a unix
 
  box, to undo a Tape Archive, type 'tar -xvf filename.tar', to undo a
 
  compress, type 'uncompress filename.Z'. Since tar does not make the
 
  file smaller, and compress can only compress 1 file, many times you
 
  will find files that are 'tarred an feathered'. They have a '.tar.Z'
 
  extension. Just run uncompress then un-tar the result. Other USENET
 
  groups will use uuencode (.uu) to send binaries. From a unix box, just
 
  type 'uudecode file.uu'. BinSCII is better than uuencode because 1) It
 
  stores the ProDOS filetype. 2) It splits the file into manageable 12K
 
  chunks. 3) It does a CRC checksum on each chunk.
 
  
  Most of these 'Unix' standard formats are available on the Apple. See
+
Most of these 'Unix' standard formats are available on the Apple. See the table below.
  the table below.
+
 
 +
Unix Format Types
 +
 
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar>
 +
| |NuFX|Bin |uuen-|com- |.ZOO|Bin |LZH/| Stuff| ARC| Other
 +
Program | |    |SCII|code |press|    |Hex |LHA | -It  |    |     
 +
--------|-|----|----|-----|-----|----|----|----|------|----|------
 +
Angel[1]|e|    |    |    |  X  |  X |    | X  |      |  X | .ZIP
 +
BSC    |c|    |  E |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |
 +
Balloon |g|  X |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |
 +
Binscii |e|    |  X |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |
 +
DeArc  |e|    |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |  D |
 +
GSCII+  |g|    |  X |  X  |    |    | D  |    |      |    | .AAF
 +
GShk    |g|  X |    |    |  D  |  D |    |    |  D  |  D |
 +
LHext  |x|    |    |    |    |    |    | D? |      |    |
 +
Nulib  |c|  X |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |
 +
PMPUnzip|x|    |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    | .ZIP
 +
SciiBin |c|    |  D |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |
 +
Shrinkit|e|  X |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |
 +
Spectrum|g|    |  X |    |    |    | X  |    |      |    |
 +
sscii  |x|    |  X |  X  |    |    | X  |    |      |    |
 +
</tab>
  
                              Format Types
 
          +-------------------------------------------------------+
 
          |NuFX|Bin |uuen-|com- |.ZOO|Bin |LZH/| Stuff| ARC| Other|
 
Program | |    |SCII|code |press|    |Hex |LHA | -It  |    |      |
 
--------|-|----|----|-----|-----|----|----|----|------|----|------|
 
Angel[1]|e|    |    |    |  X  |  X |    | X  |      |  X | .ZIP |
 
BSC    |c|    |  E |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |      |
 
Balloon |g|  X |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |      |
 
Binscii |e|    |  X |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |      |
 
DeArc  |e|    |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |  D |      |
 
GSCII+  |g|    |  X |  X  |    |    | D  |    |      |    | .AAF |
 
GShk    |g|  X |    |    |  D  |  D |    |    |  D  |  D |      |
 
LHext  |x|    |    |    |    |    |    | D? |      |    |      |
 
Nulib  |c|  X |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |      |
 
PMPUnzip|x|    |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    | .ZIP |
 
SciiBin |c|    |  D |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |      |
 
Shrinkit|e|  X |    |    |    |    |    |    |      |    |      |
 
Spectrum|g|    |  X |    |    |    | X  |    |      |    |      |
 
sscii  |x|    |  X |  X  |    |    | X  |    |      |    |      |
 
 
(Key:  E = Encode only,    D = Decode only,  X = Encode and Decode)
 
(Key:  E = Encode only,    D = Decode only,  X = Encode and Decode)
 
(Type:  e = Apple //e,  g = GS Only,  x = GS EXE file, c = C Source code)
 
(Type:  e = Apple //e,  g = GS Only,  x = GS EXE file, c = C Source code)
 
[1] Angel is pretty Buggy, but it's worth a try.
 
[1] Angel is pretty Buggy, but it's worth a try.
  
    Where to get those programs listed above
+
Where to get those programs listed above
 +
 
 +
This FAQ already lists exactly where to get Binscii and GSCII+ as well as the Shrinkit programs, as well as the top level directories of several major ftp sites. To save some hunting around in the directory structures, Apple II versions of most archive programs are located at the following places:
 +
 
 +
Caltech's Apple II Archive: apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS Ground: ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mirrors/caltech/ARCHIVERS
 +
 
 +
== What do the file extensions mean? ==
 +
 
 +
Many times, people put filename extensions (extra characters at the end of a filename) to denote what type of file it is. Please note that these are just accepted standards. If a file does not indicate it's type, you will probably have to guess. The following is a table of some common filename extensions. (Note that upper/lower case usually doesn't matter in extensions) See the previous section (on archivers) for programs that will deal with these files.
 +
 
 +
<A2Txt>Text only files:</A2Txt>
 +
 
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar><A2Txt>Extension</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>What is it?  (What program do I use?)</A2Txt>
 +
.html|[TEXT] ASCII text file with (ascii) formatting codes. Used to
 +
|format documents on the World Wide Web, some other places.
 +
.htm|[TEXT] .html, but the extension got trimmed to 3 characters
 +
.txt|[TEXT] An ASCII text file: usually English text.
 +
</tab>
 +
 
 +
<A2Txt>|Archive files:</A2Txt>
 +
 
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar><A2Txt>Extension</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>What is it?  (What program do I use?)</A2Txt>
 +
.aaf|[TEXT] Apple Archive Format for source code (aaf.unpacker)
 +
.ACU|Applelink Conversion Utility (Shrinkit)
 +
.ARC|ARC Archive (IBM ARC, GS Shrinkit, //e Angel or DeArc2E)
 +
.CPT|Compactor Pro archive (Compactor Pro on a Mac only)
 +
.BSC|[TEXT] Binscii file. (Binscii)
 +
.BSQ|[TEXT] Binscii'd NuFX file. (Binscii--then Shrinkit)
 +
.BXY|NuFX archive with a Binary II header. (Shrinkit)
 +
.BNY|BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
 +
.BQY|NuFX or Binary II  with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
 +
.BNX|NuFX with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
 +
.dsk|Disk image of 140K 5.25" Apple disk.
 +
.exe|[TEXT] Executioner file. May only work in DOS 3.3. See above.
 +
|Note: .EXE generally means IBM executable (binary) program.
 +
.gz|Gzipped file. No legal Apple II software distributed in this format.
 +
.HQX|[TEXT] Mac BinHex file. (BinHex on Mac or GSCII+ on GS)
 +
.LZH|LZH Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
 +
.LHA|LHA Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
 +
.QQ|BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
 +
.SEA|Self-extracting archive (Usually Mac, might be Shrinkit archive)
 +
.SIT|Mac StuffIt archive. (StuffIt on Mac (preferred) or GS ShrinkIt;
 +
|GS Shrinkit will only decode very old StuffIt files.
 +
.SHK|NuFX archive. (Shrinkit)
 +
.SDK|NuFX with a shrunk disk image. (Shrinkit)
 +
.tar|Unix Tape Archive (Unix 'tar -xvf', GS EXE tar)
 +
.tgz|Gzipped .tar file
 +
.uu|[TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
 +
.uue|[TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
 +
.ZOO|IBM Zoo Archive (GS Shrinkit or IBM ZOO program, //e Angel)
 +
.ZIP|IBM Zip Archive (GS EXE Unzip, IBM PKUNZIP, Unix unzip, //e Angel)
 +
|PMPUnzip
 +
.Z|Compressed file (GS Shrinkit, Unix uncompress, //e Angel)
 +
</tab>
 +
 
 +
<A2Txt>Common graphics file extensions:</A2Txt>
 +
 
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar><A2Txt>Extension</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>What is it?  (What program do I use?)</A2Txt>
 +
.AVI|Windows Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
 +
.BMP|Windows and OS/2 Bitmap format.
 +
.GIF|Graphics Interchange Format: Compressed picture.
 +
|(IIGIF for //e, many programs for all other computers)
 +
.JPG|Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
 +
.JPEG|Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
 +
.MOV|Quicktime Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
 +
.MPG|Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
 +
.MPEG|Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
 +
.TIFF|Graphics format (GS SHR Convert and others)
 +
</tab>
 +
 
 +
<A2Txt>Common sound file extensions:</A2Txt>
 +
 
 +
<tab class=wikitable sep=bar><A2Txt>Extension</A2Txt>|<A2Txt>What is it?  (What program do I use?)</A2Txt>
 +
.AU|Sun (unix) audio format. rSounder 3 can read, AudioZap 2.0 can
 +
|read/write.
 +
.MOD|Amiga Music file. Some GS programs can read & play these.
 +
.WAV|Windows file. rSounder 3 can read 8-bit WAVs, AudioZap 2.0 for GS
 +
|can read/write, other programs can guess at reading
 +
</tab>
 +
 
 +
All 'text only files' files can usually be opened directly in any word processor, assuming they were downloaded in ascii mode. (Downloading a text file in binary mode from a non-Apple (Apple II or Macintosh) machine will probably be formatted incorrectly.)
 +
 
 +
All of these types, except the ones marked [TEXT] are BINARY files. Binary files cannot be sent over e-mail, posted to the newsgroups or FTP'd in text mode. You must FTP them in binary mode (see the section on FTP). You can download either with kermit, X-,Y- or Z-Modem.
 +
 
 +
See the next few sections for how to use transfer text, pictures, general graphics, and sound/music files.
 +
 
 +
Generally, anything labeled as 'Archive' above can and do contain multiple files, and even subdirectories. Most archivers (except for tar) also compress the files so that they take less disk space and time needed to download them.
 +
 
 +
Sometimes you will find multiple filename extensions. Simply take the filename extensions apart one at a time starting with the rightmost and you should be able to reconstruct the original file. (i.e. somefile.bsq.tar.Z would mean: uncompress, untar, unbinscii, then unShrink to get the original file!)
 +
 
 +
== How do I USE stuff I have transferred to/from an IBM/Mac? ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
A:If you get a 'File Type Mismatch' error on when trying to read a file you transferred via a mac, then you will need to remove the resource fork from the file. See the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.
 +
 
 +
In general, only certain types of files can be usefully transferred back-and-forth between computers. One thing that you CANNOT do is run programs designed for another type of computer. But often you can transfer data files between similar programs (Spreadsheets) on different platforms. Here are some pointers:
 +
 
 +
== How do I use text files from other computers?==
 +
 
  
  This FAQ already lists exactly where to get Binscii and GSCII+ as well
+
One helpful hint is that all computers can read text files. Most word processors can save your file as text and import as text. But with text files, you will loose all your formatting (font type, centering and so-forth). For spreadsheets, saving as DIF will make conversion a breeze. Databases can be saved as tab-delimited records. (Note that in AppleWorks, you have to go to Print to save in these formats). Look for options like "Import" or "Export" (or "Save As" in the Mac world).
  as the Shrinkit programs, as well as the top level directories of
 
  several major ftp sites. To save some hunting around in the directory
 
  structures, Apple II versions of most archive programs are located at
 
  the following places:
 
  
  Caltech's Apple II Archive: apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS
+
If you want to do better, there are several options available. A commercial program called MacLinkPlus can do some conversions. Some Claris programs do conversions automatically. Also, AFE can convert between some kinds of documents (For example AppleWorks Word Processor to MsWorks) if you have the right translator.
  Ground: ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mirrors/caltech/ARCHIVERS
 
    _________________________________________________________________
 
  
6.3 What do the file extensions mean?
+
ftp://sumex-aim.stanford.edu/info-mac/util/afe-appleworks-msworks.hqx
  
  Many times, people put filename extensions (extra characters at the
+
For IBM folks, The CrossWorks program can convert between many Apple and IBM formats, and even comes with a universal null modem cable. Alternately, If you use AppleWorks a lot, you can get SuperWorks for the IBM, a clone of AppleWorks. It can import AppleWorks files directly. For graphics, SuperConvert can convert between all Apple-specific graphics formats and many Mac, Amiga and IBM specific formats. It can also save as GIF, which is a universal standard.
  end of a filename) to denote what type of file it is. Please note that
 
  these are just accepted standards. If a file does not indicate it's
 
  type, you will probably have to guess. The following is a table of
 
  some common filename extensions. (Note that upper/lower case usually
 
  doesn't matter in extensions) See the previous section (on archivers)
 
  for programs that will deal with these files.
 
  
Extension  What is it?  (What program do I use?)
+
== How do I view picture files from other platforms? ==
---------  ---------------------------------------------------------------
 
Text only files:
 
.html  [TEXT] ASCII text file with (ascii) formatting codes. Used to
 
        format documents on the World Wide Web, some other places.
 
.htm  [TEXT] .html, but the extension got trimmed to 3 characters
 
.txt  [TEXT] An ASCII text file: usually English text.
 
  
Archive files:
 
.aaf  [TEXT] Apple Archive Format for source code (aaf.unpacker)
 
.ACU  Applelink Conversion Utility (Shrinkit)
 
.ARC  ARC Archive (IBM ARC, GS Shrinkit, //e Angel or DeArc2E)
 
.CPT  Compactor Pro archive (Compactor Pro on a Mac only)
 
.BSC  [TEXT] Binscii file. (Binscii)
 
.BSQ  [TEXT] Binscii'd NuFX file. (Binscii--then Shrinkit)
 
.BXY  NuFX archive with a Binary II header. (Shrinkit)
 
.BNY  BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
 
.BQY  NuFX or Binary II  with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
 
.BNX  NuFX with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
 
.dsk  Disk image of 140K 5.25" Apple disk. No legitimate and copyrght-
 
        enforcing Apple II sites use this format, so it is not covered in
 
        this FAQ.
 
.exe  [TEXT] Executioner file. May only work in DOS 3.3. See above.
 
          Note: .EXE generally means IBM executable (binary) program.
 
.gz    Gzipped file. No legal Apple II software distributed in this format.
 
.HQX  [TEXT] Mac BinHex file. (BinHex on Mac or GSCII+ on GS)
 
.LZH  LZH Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
 
.LHA  LHA Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
 
.QQ    BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
 
.SEA  Self-extracting archive (Usually Mac, might be Shrinkit archive)
 
.SIT  Mac StuffIt archive. (StuffIt on Mac (preferred) or GS ShrinkIt;
 
        GS Shrinkit will only decode very old StuffIt files.
 
.SHK  NuFX archive. (Shrinkit)
 
.SDK  NuFX with a shrunk disk image. (Shrinkit)
 
.tar  Unix Tape Archive (Unix 'tar -xvf', GS EXE tar)
 
.tgz  Gzipped .tar file
 
.uu    [TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
 
.uue  [TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
 
.ZOO  IBM Zoo Archive (GS Shrinkit or IBM ZOO program, //e Angel)
 
.ZIP  IBM Zip Archive (GS EXE Unzip, IBM PKUNZIP, Unix unzip, //e Angel)
 
        PMPUnzip
 
.Z    Compressed file (GS Shrinkit, Unix uncompress, //e Angel)
 
  
Common graphics file extensions:
+
A: There are quite a few programs available, each capable of reading different file formats:
.AVI  Windows Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
 
.BMP  Windows and OS/2 Bitmap format.
 
.GIF  Graphics Interchange Format: Compressed picture.
 
        (IIGIF for //e, many programs for all other computers)
 
.JPG  Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
 
.JPEG  Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
 
.MOV  Quicktime Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
 
.MPG  Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
 
.MPEG  Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
 
.TIFF  Graphics format (GS SHR Convert and others)
 
  
Common sound file extensions:
+
GIF, BMP, other lossless compressed formats: * IIGIF is a freeware GIF converter for any Apple II (but there is a patch needed for the Apple //c). It reads in GIF and saves as hires or double-hires.
.AU    Sun (unix) audio format. rSounder 3 can read, AudioZap 2.0 can
 
        read/write.
 
.MOD  Amiga Music file. Some GS programs can read & play these.
 
.WAV  Windows file. rSounder 3 can read 8-bit WAVs, AudioZap 2.0 for GS
 
        can read/write, other programs can guess at reading
 
  
  All 'text only files' files can usually be opened directly in any word
+
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iigif.bsc
  processor, assuming they were downloaded in ascii mode. (Downloading a
 
  text file in binary mode from a non-Apple (Apple II or Macintosh)
 
  machine will probably be formatted incorrectly.)
 
  
  All of these types, except the ones marked [TEXT] are BINARY files.
+
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iic.patch.for. iigif
  Binary files cannot be sent over e-mail, posted to the newsgroups or
 
  FTP'd in text mode. You must FTP them in binary mode (see the section
 
  on FTP). You can download either with kermit, X-,Y- or Z-Modem.
 
  
  See the next few sections for how to use transfer text, pictures,
+
* MACDOWN is also freeware and lets you do the same with MacPaint pics.
  general graphics, and sound/music files.
 
  
  Generally, anything labeled as 'Archive' above can and do contain
+
* A ProDOS 8 version of The Graphics Exchange from Roger Wagner Publishing.
  multiple files, and even subdirectories. Most archivers (except for
 
  tar) also compress the files so that they take less disk space and
 
  time needed to download them.
 
  
  Sometimes you will find multiple filename extensions. Simply take the
+
[The following software only work on an Apple IIGS]
  filename extensions apart one at a time starting with the rightmost
 
  and you should be able to reconstruct the original file. (i.e.
 
  somefile.bsq.tar.Z would mean: uncompress, untar, unbinscii, then
 
  unShrink to get the original file!)
 
  
  6.4 How do I USE stuff I have transferred to/from an IBM/Mac?
+
* Convert 3200 is one of the best programs still being sold for graphics conversion on the GS. A short list of file formats it handles is: Apple Preferred Format (GS) and PaintWorks Gold format, various 3200 color GS formats, as well as Windows-OS/2 BMP, Compuserve GIF, Amiga .IFF/ PC .LBM, Paintbrush PCX, Binary PC and several varieties of TIFF files. It can save in a number of those: Apple Preferred, Windows BMP, Paintbrush PCX, TIFF, Binary PC and Print Shop GS.
  
  A:If you get a 'File Type Mismatch' error on when trying to read a
+
For more information, please see http://www.crl.com/~joko/convert.html.
  file you transferred via a mac, then you will need to remove the
 
  resource fork from the file. See the section on file transfer from
 
  Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.
 
  
  In general, only certain types of files can be usefully transferred
+
* The Graphics Exchange converts between many formats of graphics; the 16-bit version is also available from Roger Wagner Publishing.
  back-and-forth between computers. One thing that you CANNOT do is run
 
  programs designed for another type of computer. But often you can
 
  transfer data files between similar programs (Spreadsheets) on
 
  different platforms. Here are some pointers:
 
  
  6.5 How do I use text files from other computers?
+
* Prizm v1.0 Converts .GIFs, Amiga IFFs, Raw Files, and some other types to Grayscale (very fast), 16 colors, 256 colors, and 3200 colors! Size of picture limited by availabe RAM (Not sure where it's available from anymore either; it was commercial.)
  
  One helpful hint is that all computers can read text files. Most word
+
* SuperConvert (commercial program, published by Seven Hills Software) loads all GS formats, plus GIFS and other non-GS specific formats and saves in all GS formats (including Finder Icon files). It has more dithering options than most of the other programs, but you may have to play with it to find the best one. It can also save in TIFF and GIF formats if you want to move Apple II graphics to other machines. Version 4.0 of this program is faster and adds support for JPEG files.
  processors can save your file as text and import as text. But with
 
  text files, you will loose all your formatting (font type, centering
 
  and so-forth). For spreadsheets, saving as DIF will make conversion a
 
  breeze. Databases can be saved as tab-delimited records. (Note that in
 
  AppleWorks, you have to go to Print to save in these formats). Look
 
  for options like "Import" or "Export" (or "Save As" in the Mac world).
 
  
  If you want to do better, there are several options available. A
+
* SHRConvert is the earlier, shareware, predecessor to SuperConvert. It does a pretty good job on the types of graphics it supports. SHRConvert used to be available for download at ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/graphics/shrconvert.2.1.b sq, but it appears to be pulled off ftp sites at the author's request when SuperConvert was published.
  commercial program called MacLinkPlus can do some conversions. Some
 
  Claris programs do conversions automatically. Also, AFE can convert
 
  between some kinds of documents (For example AppleWorks Word Processor
 
  to MsWorks) if you have the right translator.
 
  
  ftp://sumex-aim.stanford.edu/info-mac/util/afe-appleworks-msworks.hqx
+
* Platinum Paint is a commercial program that can import all GS formats plus MacPaint. It can only save in SHR and Apple Preferred. Version 2.0 can make Animations too! Platinum Paint was sold by Scantron Quality Computers.
  
  For IBM folks, The CrossWorks program can convert between many Apple
+
* The Byte Works has a TIFF Viewer/Converter that'll read in TIFF files on the GS.
  and IBM formats, and even comes with a universal null modem cable.
 
  Alternately, If you use AppleWorks a lot, you can get SuperWorks for
 
  the IBM, a clone of AppleWorks. It can import AppleWorks files
 
  directly. For graphics, SuperConvert can convert between all
 
  Apple-specific graphics formats and many Mac, Amiga and IBM specific
 
  formats. It can also save as GIF, which is a universal standard.
 
  
  6.6 How do I view picture files from other platforms?
+
* Animasia is reported to have some sort of .DXF (3D format used by CAD programs among others) importer; it runs only on the GS.
  
  A: There are quite a few programs available, each capable of reading
+
* ShowPic 6 is a shareware NDA that can display most GS formats. You can also save the resulting graphic as a IIGS SHR painting. ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/gsos/nda/showpic.6.0.bsq
  different file formats:
 
  
  GIF, BMP, other lossless compressed formats:
+
* DreamGrafix supports all 3200 color picture types and also 16 color and 256 color pictures. This is a very impressive commercial paint program with its 3200 color support. EGO Systems (now since out of business) has teken over distribution of this; see the dealers section of this FAQ for their address.
    * IIGIF is a freeware GIF converter for any Apple II (but there is a
 
      patch needed for the Apple //c). It reads in GIF and saves as
 
      hires or double-hires.
 
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iigif.bsc
 
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iic.patch.for.
 
      iigif
 
    * MACDOWN is also freeware and lets you do the same with MacPaint
 
      pics.
 
    * A ProDOS 8 version of The Graphics Exchange from Roger Wagner
 
      Publishing.
 
  
  [The following software only work on an Apple IIGS]
+
Note: 'All GS formats' includes Superhires (type $C1 and $C0), hires, double-hires and PrintShop/PrintShop GS.
  
    * Convert 3200 is one of the best programs still being sold for
+
JPEG and other lossy formats:
      graphics conversion on the GS. A short list of file formats it
 
      handles is: Apple Preferred Format (GS) and PaintWorks Gold
 
      format, various 3200 color GS formats, as well as Windows-OS/2
 
      BMP, Compuserve GIF, Amiga .IFF/ PC .LBM, Paintbrush PCX, Binary
 
      PC and several varieties of TIFF files. It can save in a number of
 
      those: Apple Preferred, Windows BMP, Paintbrush PCX, TIFF, Binary
 
      PC and Print Shop GS.
 
      For more information, please see
 
      http://www.crl.com/~joko/convert.html.
 
    * The Graphics Exchange converts between many formats of graphics;
 
      the 16-bit version is also available from Roger Wagner Publishing.
 
    * Prizm v1.0 Converts .GIFs, Amiga IFFs, Raw Files, and some other
 
      types to Grayscale (very fast), 16 colors, 256 colors, and 3200
 
      colors! Size of picture limited by availabe RAM (Not sure where
 
      it's available from anymore either; it was commercial.)
 
    * SuperConvert (commercial program, published by Seven Hills
 
      Software) loads all GS formats, plus GIFS and other non-GS
 
      specific formats and saves in all GS formats (including Finder
 
      Icon files). It has more dithering options than most of the other
 
      programs, but you may have to play with it to find the best one.
 
      It can also save in TIFF and GIF formats if you want to move Apple
 
      II graphics to other machines. Version 4.0 of this program is
 
      faster and adds support for JPEG files.
 
    * SHRConvert is the earlier, shareware, predecessor to SuperConvert.
 
      It does a pretty good job on the types of graphics it supports.
 
      SHRConvert used to be available for download at
 
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/graphics/shrconvert.2.1.b
 
      sq, but it appears to be pulled off ftp sites at the author's
 
      request when SuperConvert was published.
 
    * Platinum Paint is a commercial program that can import all GS
 
      formats plus MacPaint. It can only save in SHR and Apple
 
      Preferred. Version 2.0 can make Animations too! Platinum Paint was
 
      sold by Scantron Quality Computers.
 
    * The Byte Works has a TIFF Viewer/Converter that'll read in TIFF
 
      files on the GS.
 
    * Animasia is reported to have some sort of .DXF (3D format used by
 
      CAD programs among others) importer; it runs only on the GS.
 
    * ShowPic 6 is a shareware NDA that can display most GS formats. You
 
      can also save the resulting graphic as a IIGS SHR painting.
 
      ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/gsos/nda/showpic.6.0.bsq
 
    * DreamGrafix supports all 3200 color picture types and also 16
 
      color and 256 color pictures. This is a very impressive commercial
 
      paint program with its 3200 color support. EGO Systems (now since
 
      out of business) has teken over distribution of this; see the
 
      dealers section of this FAQ for their address.
 
  
  Note: 'All GS formats' includes Superhires (type $C1 and $C0), hires,
+
As far as I know, JPEG viewers are only available for the Apple IIGS, no other Apple II machines. Seven Hills Software's commercial program SuperConvert (version 4.0 or later) can view and convert them. A number of free viewers are available at ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/graphics/viewers. Check them out if you're interested.
  double-hires and PrintShop/PrintShop GS.
 
  
  JPEG and other lossy formats:
+
== How do I use Icons/Fonts/etc from other platforms? ==
  
  As far as I know, JPEG viewers are only available for the Apple IIGS,
 
  no other Apple II machines. Seven Hills Software's commercial program
 
  SuperConvert (version 4.0 or later) can view and convert them. A
 
  number of free viewers are available at
 
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/graphics/viewers. Check them out
 
  if you're interested.
 
  
  6.7 How do I use Icons/Fonts/etc from other platforms?
+
A: For reading Mac icons and such, try "Resource Spy"
  
  A: For reading Mac icons and such, try "Resource Spy"
+
ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/pub/apple2/gs/util/resource.spy.bsq
  
  ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/pub/apple2/gs/util/resource.spy.bsq
+
Note that Mac TrueType fonts will require you to purchase the 'Pointless' program by Westcode software before you can actually use them on a GS. Once you have that installed, you can copy Mac TrueType fonts off a Macintosh disk and use them without any conversion through Resource Spy. IBM Truetype fonts are in a different and unspported file format. Conversion programs exist for the Macintosh (and possibly IBMs as well), but no GS converters exist.
  
  Note that Mac TrueType fonts will require you to purchase the
+
No Truetype readers exist for non-GS Apple IIs to my knowledge; Postscript fonts are not displayable by any Apple II programs to my knowledge. EGO Systems' LaserBeam 1.1 can download PostScript fonts to an attached Laserwriter.
  'Pointless' program by Westcode software before you can actually use
 
  them on a GS. Once you have that installed, you can copy Mac TrueType
 
  fonts off a Macintosh disk and use them without any conversion through
 
  Resource Spy. IBM Truetype fonts are in a different and unspported
 
  file format. Conversion programs exist for the Macintosh (and possibly
 
  IBMs as well), but no GS converters exist.
 
  
  No Truetype readers exist for non-GS Apple IIs to my knowledge;
+
== How do I listen to sounds/music from other platforms? ==
  Postscript fonts are not displayable by any Apple II programs to my
 
  knowledge. EGO Systems' LaserBeam 1.1 can download PostScript fonts to
 
  an attached Laserwriter.
 
  
  6.8 How do I listen to sounds/music from other platforms?
 
  
  Ian Schmidt has put together an Apple II Sound & Music FAQ which has
+
Ian Schmidt has put together an Apple II Sound & Music FAQ which has much more detail on this subject. It is available online at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html.
  much more detail on this subject. It is available online at
 
  http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html.
 
  
  For non-GS Apple IIs, there are two programs available. Michael
+
For non-GS Apple IIs, there are two programs available. Michael Mahon's Sound Editor 2.2 is supposed to have very good playback. It is available from http://members.aol.com/MJMahon/sound22.shk
  Mahon's Sound Editor 2.2 is supposed to have very good playback. It is
 
  available from http://members.aol.com/MJMahon/sound22.shk
 
  
  'IISound' is also available for regular Apple IIs; it can play back
+
'IISound' is also available for regular Apple IIs; it can play back many sorts of sounds, and is reported to use the same playback routines as Mahon's program above. You can get it from: ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/Zocalo/pub/apple2/8bit/music.and.sound/iisoun dv4.2.shk.
  many sorts of sounds, and is reported to use the same playback
 
  routines as Mahon's program above. You can get it from:
 
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/Zocalo/pub/apple2/8bit/music.and.sound/iisoun
 
  dv4.2.shk.
 
  
  With the expanded sound circuitry of the GS, the number of sound
+
With the expanded sound circuitry of the GS, the number of sound programs is dramatically increased. On the GS, the program 'MacSoundGrabber' can read Mac sounds out of Mac files, and save them in a GS format; you can get it from ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/macsoundgrab.shk. Alternatively, you can use the 'rMover' addon for Hypercard.
  programs is dramatically increased. On the GS, the program
 
  'MacSoundGrabber' can read Mac sounds out of Mac files, and save them
 
  in a GS format; you can get it from
 
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/macsoundgrab.shk.
 
  Alternatively, you can use the 'rMover' addon for Hypercard.
 
  
  Also, programs such as rSounder 3 and AudioZAP for the GS can
+
Also, programs such as rSounder 3 and AudioZAP for the GS can read/play WAV files and lots of other formats. rSounder can also save converted files (8-bit input only) as GS Resource-based sounds, suitable for the System 6 Sound control panel.
  read/play WAV files and lots of other formats. rSounder can also save
 
  converted files (8-bit input only) as GS Resource-based sounds,
 
  suitable for the System 6 Sound control panel.
 
  
  With most 8-bit mono sounds, you can simply import the file as binary
+
With most 8-bit mono sounds, you can simply import the file as binary and use the editor to strip off any header and Zero (0) bytes, which cause the sound to stop prematurely on playback due to the way the GS's Ensoniq chip handles samples. 16-bit formats (a number of WAVs, possibly also .AUs) will sound like garbage; only rSounder 3 and AudioZAP 2.0 (available only after paying the $20 shareware fee for AudioZAP 1.x) can deal nicely with those. ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/rsounder3.shk. ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/audiozap.shk.
  and use the editor to strip off any header and Zero (0) bytes, which
 
  cause the sound to stop prematurely on playback due to the way the
 
  GS's Ensoniq chip handles samples. 16-bit formats (a number of WAVs,
 
  possibly also .AUs) will sound like garbage; only rSounder 3 and
 
  AudioZAP 2.0 (available only after paying the $20 shareware fee for
 
  AudioZAP 1.x) can deal nicely with those.
 
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/rsounder3.shk.
 
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/audiozap.shk.
 
  
  About the only non-Apple II music format which is readily playable is
+
About the only non-Apple II music format which is readily playable is the Amiga .MOD format. Many players exist, from fairly lousy to ones doing a pretty good job. Recommended ones are MODZap, Beatbox, Shellplay/Deskplay; most of those are available from ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/music/modplayers.
  the Amiga .MOD format. Many players exist, from fairly lousy to ones
 
  doing a pretty good job. Recommended ones are MODZap, Beatbox,
 
  Shellplay/Deskplay; most of those are available from
 
  ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/music/modplayers.
 
  
  6.9 How do I transfer Hypercard/Hyperstudio files?
+
== How do I transfer Hypercard/Hyperstudio files? ==
  
  Apple bundled a 'rMover' program with Hypercard GS that facilitated
 
  the transfer of files that didn't require custom XCMDs. It can
 
  transfer in both directions. I've never used it, but the necessary
 
  files should be available with the rest of Hypercard at
 
  ftp.support.apple.com, pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS
 
  . These files are unfortunately only unpackable on Macs. The .bxy
 
  files (despite the filetype extension) are not readable on Apple IIs
 
  unless you manually strip off the 512 byte header
 
  
  Apparently the Mac version of HyperStudio will run GS HyperStudio
+
Apple bundled a 'rMover' program with Hypercard GS that facilitated the transfer of files that didn't require custom XCMDs. It can transfer in both directions. I've never used it, but the necessary files should be available with the rest of Hypercard at ftp.support.apple.com, pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS . These files are unfortunately only unpackable on Macs. The .bxy files (despite the filetype extension) are not readable on Apple IIs unless you manually strip off the 512 byte header
  stacks without conversion.
 
  
    _________________________________________________________________
+
Apparently the Mac version of HyperStudio will run GS HyperStudio stacks without conversion.
  
  
  
There are a lot more questions with answers not included directly in
+
There are a lot more questions with answers not included directly in this FAQ; please see http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ for more of them.
this FAQ; please see http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ
 
for more of them.
 
  
 
Copyright 2007 by Tony Diaz
 
Copyright 2007 by Tony Diaz
  
 
--- End Part 3 of 4
 
--- End Part 3 of 4

Revision as of 09:06, 17 September 2007

From: tdiaz-a(in_a_circle)-apple2-dotsero-org (Tony Diaz) Newsgroups: comp.sys.apple2,comp.answers,news.answers Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Followup-To: comp.sys.apple2 Subject: comp.sys.apple2 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Part 1/4

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part1 Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: August 21 2007 Version: 5.1.38 URL: http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ

The next section is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) posting of the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup. Copyright (c) 2007 by Tony Diaz (email: tdiaz-a(in_a_circle)-apple2-dotsero-org), all rights reserved. This document can be freely copied so long as 1) it is not sold, 2) any sections reposted elsewhere from it are credited back to this FAQ with the FAQ's copyright info and official WWW location ( http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ) left in place.

This may not be the latest version of this FAQ-- this is an archived copy. For that, drop by http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ

This FAQ may not be sold, bundled on disks or CD-ROMs, reprinted in magazines, books, periodicals, or the like without prior consent from the maintainer, Tony Diaz. Exceptions are explicitly granted for Juiced.GS and _The_Lamp. Email me for permission otherwise.

Big thanks to Nathan Mates, the previous maintainer of this comp.sys.apple2 FAQ, for allowing it to live on after his departure and anyone who took up that mantle before him.

--- Begin part 3 of 4

How do I get files off the net? 8/26/96

Quick summary: 1: Make sure you know how to download files from ftp sites 2: Make sure you have a Binscii decoder 3: Make sure you have a Shrinkit unpacker 4: Unpack with the programs

And, in more detail, starting with a word of explanation:

[There used to be details about older Apple II packing programs in the FAQ, but as they're pretty much never used anymore, the info on them has been relegated to the 'obsolete' section of the comp.sys.apple2 FAQ at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.old.html]

What are Binscii & Shrinkit, and why do I need them?

Shrinkit was written by Andy Nicholas to be able to take multiple files or disks and compress them into one file. This allows a authors to distribute programs, documentation, and anything else as one complete file. It is analogous to (but NOT the same as) Stuff-It or [PK]ZIP for Macs and IBMs. Shrinkit comes in many different forms, as is noted in the section on downloading it.

Binscii is a method of turning Apple II files into pieces that can be safely transmitted by the internet, such as usenet and email, and restored to the Apple II file later. It is used for two major reasons: 1) Since it splits files up into manageable pieces, it lets huge files be transmitted without fear of being cut short. 2) Since it translates files to strictly printable characters, mediums that cannot safely send binary files (i.e. files put through Shrinkit) such as email and usenet can send binscii'd files.

Binscii is similar to the unix 'uuencode' encoding, but it is not identical, and far superior. It allows Apple II filetype information to be restored when the file is unpacked. Secondly, binscii is usually not concerned about email or news headers (it ignores them when unpacking), and also can unpack the various pieces of a binscii'd file in any order, and the original file will be be intact as long as all the pieces were unpacked. Finally, you do not have to rejoin all the binscii pieces into one file before unpacking.

Why these two programs are so necessary in downloading is the following: pretty much all Apple II programs are first compressed with Shrinkit, and if they are to be sent via email or to comp.binaries.apple2, the shrunk file is then binscii'd. To unpack, you will need to first un-binscii the file, if appropriate, and then un-Shrink it.

Ok, fine. What do Binscii and Shrinkit files look like?

If you are given a file, first look at the end of the filename. If it ends in ".BSC" or ".BSQ" (no quotes, and upper/lower case doesn't matter), you most likely have a binscii file. Shrinkit files tend to end in ".SHK", but ".BXY" is also used.

If that isn't helpful, or you have a file without a name, then take a look at the first few lines of content. After any optional news or email header, a binscii file should look like this:

FiLeStArTfIlEsTaRt ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789() GSOMEFILE.SHK AQhmAAAAA8)4MIAI02DA9ARMQEDtAQhmAIVZ gYITA6u7xADA0MjM3YTNBlDOENkQwYURzITM2UDN5gzNDJUQGVERyEDM1QzM4cjN CFUOFR0QxAjR0MjM3YTNBlDOENkQwAQRzITM2UDN5gzNDJUQGVERyEDM1QzM4cjN

The first two lines are constant throughout all binscii files; the third contains the filename ('SOMEFILE.SHK' here) and then the encoded file.

On the other hand, a .SHK file cannot have any news or email header, and has only about 6 characters at the start (not all viewable on a normal screen, especially non-Apple IIs) that identify it. Thus, trying to look at the first few lines is pointless.

Finally, you can always try to unpack the file, as the binscii and Shrinkit programs will notify you if the file is not in the format they can unpack. As files are always binscii'd last, you should thus try and unbinscii an unknown file first, then try to unshrink it.

Enough technical discussions, now on to the specifics of where and how to get binscii and shrinkit running on your system.


Where can I get Apple II software and info on the net? 3/2/97

If you're looking for an OS (operating system) for your Apple II, there's pretty much no way to download it and write it to an Apple II disk without an Apple II handy. However, there are other ways of getting it; see section 7.2 of this FAQ.

[A quick note about URL notation: For those of you with full net access, you can run a web browser (like Lynx if you are dialed in from your Apple), which will understand URLs directly. Otherwise, ignore the 'http:' ones and see the next section on how to use the FTP ones.)

Hint: ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2

Hostname = 'apple2.caltech.edu' Directory = pub/apple2'

Major FTP sites and mirrors:

And for information, here's some of the major resources:


http://www.hypermall.com/History What is the history of the various models in the Apple II series?

http://www.gno.org/~gno/FAQ.html comp.sys.apple2.gno FAQ [For the GNO/ME multitasking environment for the Apple IIGS]

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/pinouts.html Pinouts for many different Apple II connectors

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html Apple IIGS sound and music capabilities.

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/sys6files.html Reference of GS/OS System 6's filestructure, with notes as to which files are required, etc.

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Flopticals and Apple IIs.

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html CDROMs and Apple IIs.

http://www.teraform.com/~lvirden/Misc/apple2-languages.txt Apple II Programmmer's Catalog of Languages and Toolkits

http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/zip.html Upgrading and modifying Apple IIGS accelerators.

http://www.crl.com/~joko/ssii.html - ShareWare Solutions II Homepage

http://www.tals.dis.qut.edu.au/staff/willie/ Willie Yeo's verified list of commercial Apple II products reclassified to be publically distributable.

Other FTP Sites:

Archives of C.S.A2 Newsgroups:

Google Groups, http://groups.google.com, is an excellent searchable archive of pretty much all major usenet groups, including all of the Apple II newsgroups. It's only good back to about March 1995 as of 8/31/96, but they may be trying to extend that back.

Other, more limited archives:

wuarchive.wustl.edu|/usenet/comp.sources.apple2 (complete!) |/usenet/comp.binaries.apple2 ?ftp.tohoku.ac.jp|/pub/news/comp.binaries.apple2 hp4nl.nluug.nl|/pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete) mcsun.eu.net|/pub/newsarchive/comp/sources/apple2 (incomplete) nic.funet.fi|/pub/archive/comp.sources.apple2 (complete?) relay.cs.toronto.edu|/pub/lists.1989 (1989 only)

If you have a Shell account, you can use 'archie' to find ftp sites with a particular file.


How do you download files off the net?

This is important because once you're on the internet, most of the files are available only on 'ftp' and www sites. ('ftp' stands for File Transfer Protocol, and www stands for the World Wide Web, but all you need to know is where to get Apple II files from. See the section above for a list of ftp sites.)

1. (For ProLine users) Get files to your host

 1. Dial up your host and log in.
 2. I'm not familiar with ProLine, so I'll be vague here. 
     Just go into the files section and look... Anyone wanna clue me in?

2. (for those with a Shell account) Get files to your host

 1. Choose an FTP site from the FAQ
 2. At your UNIX prompt, type "ftp _____" (fill in hostname)
 3. At the "Login:" prompt, type "anonymous" (or "ftp" if you are a bad speller like me ;)
 4. Type in your e-mail address when prompted for a password.
 5. Type "bin" unless you are only getting text files
 6. Type "cd ______" (directory) to move to the right directory.
 7. type "ls" to see a list of files.
 8. Locate each file (more "cd ___"'s and "ls"). Also, "cd .." will move up a directory in the tree.)
 9. use "get ______" (filename) to get it
 10. When you are done using FTP, type "quit"


3. From a WWW browser, most browsers are not set up to download .SHK files in binary, which will make them impossible to unpack. There are some solutions to this. Dan Zimmerman has made the Apple II archive at Caltech automatically send files in binary mode; go to http://apple2.caltech.edu/a2archive.html


If you are using Lynx, when the cursor is on the file to download, you can hit 'd' to download the file, which for most people forces a binary download. [Lynx has too many versions with the same version 'number' and possible configurations to be able to list which ones will work.]


Using most WWW browsers under unix (Netscape, Mosaic, lynx, maybe some others) you can try editing the file '.mime.types' (no 's) in your home directory on most unix systems. (Contact your local sysadmin or guru for help on unix editors). Add the following lines to the file:


application/x-Shrinkit shk SHK sdk SDK application/x-BinaryII bny BNY bqy BQY bxy BXY


This will work for most files downloaded with lynx, netscape, and mosaic. Non-unix browsers can do similar things, but you'll need to read the documentation on them.


4. From email or comp.binaries.apple2, the files are pretty much always in BINSCII format, so you do not need to worry about binary downloading. Simply save the email or news articles to disk (most things do have multiple parts, so be sure to get all of them), and download that to your Apple II. You can keep the posts as separate files, no need to paste them all together when saving or downloading. For a multiple part binscii file, the order in which you unpack them does not matter as long as you unpack every part. 5. Get files to your Apple II


See the next section on transfering Apple II files.


How do you transfer Apple files to/from other personal computers?

Normally, you cannot stick a 5.25" disk in a non-Apple II machine and have it read it. This is because the disk writing formats are different at a hardware level, and no software exists (or will exist) to let a PC read an Apple II 5.25" drive. However, with rarer addon hardware, you can bridge the gap. This has been an insolvable problem for nearly 15 years; if it could be solved in software, such a thing would exist.


That being said, here's a list of ways that do work:

How do I transfer DOS 3.3, Pascal, CP/M files?

Unless you have a null modem (see below) and a comm program for the OS in question, you'll most likely have to use a real Apple II to transfer the files to an OS that a lot more systems can read, such as ProDOS.


The ProDOS system software, the DOS 3.3 FST (optional part of GS System 6.0 and 6.0.1), and Copy ][+ can all read and convert files on DOS 3.3 disks to ProDOS disks; all but the DOS 3.3 FST can write from ProDOS to DOS 3.3 disks. All data files should translate fine, but any program requiring a specific OS will probably not run under the wrong OS.


For translating between ProDOS, CPM, Pascal and DOS 3.3, try the program Chameleon. You have to use the 'force disk as ProDOS' option to copy to/from your hard drive.


ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/chameleon.bsq


Once the file is on a ProDOS disk, you generally have a lot more transfer options available.


How do I transfer files by [null] modem?

This is probably the most accessible option; it can be done by an Apple and any other computer as long as both have serial ports, cable(s) to go between them, and communications software on both sides.


Modems allow you to transfer computer data over phone lines; a null modem essentially yanks the middleman of a phone. Null modem cables (which are identical to serial printer cables) are essentially a cable which plugs into the serial port of two computers, and is wired such that when one computer sends, the other receives, and vice versa. With a communications program that supports file transfer on both ends, you can send files from one side to the other. There are a few companies selling null modem cables and the like; see the appropriate section of this FAQ- 10.2 for their info.


For those who haven't picked a program to download with, here are the better Apple II programs listed alphabetically; for other systems, you'll have to find a comparable program. All of the non-commercial programs are available from FTP sites. If you don't have a comm program already, your best bet is to have someone mail you one on a disk or buy ProTerm. (See resources).


Program
Comp
''Emulations''
Protocols
Notes
ANSITerm GS$ Color ANSI PSE X,Y,Z-modem Editor, scrollback, etc.
Agate E mono ANSI X,(Y,Z D/L only) Unpacks ZIP, buggy
ColorTerm GS Color ANSI X-modem Desktop based
CommSys E none X-modem Works on ][+
FreeTerm GS none X-modem Desktop based
GSVT GS VT-100 none Desktop
GTerm GS Color ANSI none Written in BASIC/ML
GenComm GS none none Text, Shell Compat.
Kermit-65 E VT-100 Kermit, X-modem Hard to use,Works on ][+
MegaTerm GS Color ANSI none ProDOS 8
PTP E$ VT-100 X-Modem, (Y-mdm D/L) From Quality Computers
ProTerm E$ PSE, VT-100 Kermit, X,Y,Z-modem From InSync
SnowTerm GS VT-100 (+) none Desktop based
Spectrum GS$ ANSI, VT100, PSE,
Viewdata Kermit,X,Y,Z Modem GS Desktop Prog
TIC E$ VT-100 (+) X-modem Small, Scripting.
Telcom GS VT-100, PSE X, (Y D/L only) Shell compat
Z-Link E VT-100 X-modem Good.


Key: $ = A commercial program + = And other obscure ones Computer: E = works on GS and //e, GS = only works on GS D/L = Download from other computer


PTP = Point-To-Point. I don't think it's being sold anymore. Anyone know? See the resources section for where to buy the commercial programs.


Once you are set up with a comm program on both ends, with a modem, here's how to send files: 1. Find out what file transfer protocols your Apple communications package supports. (see below for a list)


2. On your local comm program, set your file transfer type to Text (TXT) or Binary (BIN) depending on what type of file you are downloading. If there is an option to "strip incoming linefeeds", try turning it on.


3. Get your host to send you the file. I don't know about ProLine, but UNIX users can use these commands: For Z-Modem: "sz ___ ____ ____" (file names) For X-Modem: "sx ____" (one at a time) For Kermit: "kermit", then "put _____" (filename) Z-Modem is by far the fastest of the three; if you are getting random connection errors, you may need to do "sz -e ___ ____ ____" to force a safer (but slower) xfer method.


4. If needed, tell your local communications program to Receive. You must do this quickly, or the other host will give up trying to send the file.


5. Write down the full pathname of the files you downloaded and where you put them. There will be a quiz later. Pathnames look like "/DISK/DIR/FILE.NAME"


Note: If something goes wrong, hit ESC, Ctrl-X or Ctrl-C 3 times. If you can't get one protocol to work, try the next one down. Z-modem is much faster than the others. You will want to find a program that supports it.


With a null modem, it is similar. First, you need to tell both sides that they are online. Reading the manual is strongly encouraged! This is easy for some programs, where you can just start them or set an option, and they're running. Other, like Windows 95's Hyperterminal, are almost dead set on dialing a modem first. You'll also need to set both sides to communicate at the same speed and connection parameters (8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, aka '8N1' is customary). When you've got that done successfully, you can type on either computer's keyboard and have it appear on the other's screen.


Once the null modem connection is set up, you can transfer files. From the receiving end, issue the command(s) to receive a file in some protocol, such as Kermit, X-Modem, or Z-Modem. Then, from the sending side, issue the command(s) to send a file in that same protocol. The file should then be transferred. (As above, reading the manuals and/or documentation for the software used is highly encouraged).


A very nice null modem is the CrossWorks product, which has been taken over by Sequential Systems. It is a null modem cable as well as Apple II and IBM PC software that lets you translate certain types of files between both sides, such as Appleworks files, and keep the formatting roughly intact. See the vendors lists below.


How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple II?

As noted above, Apple II drives write differently at a hardware level than IBM PC drives; you will not be able to write to IBM PC 5.25" disks or 720K 3.5" disks from Apple IIs unless you have special hardware.


If you have an Apple //e, the Bluedisk from ///SHH systeme, which lets you plug in IBM PC 3.5" and 5.25" drives to an Apple II; you should be ablt to transfer files with standard file copy programs. Another option is the AE PC Transporter card, which had PC disk drive support for 5.25" and 3.5" drives, as well as the software to translate between the two. You also get the ability to run a number of IBM PC programs on your Apple.


If you have a 3.5" drive on your system capable of reading 800K or 1.44MB disks, you can read Mac (HFS) disks of the right size directly with some pieces of software: ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu apple2/8bit/util/a2fx.8.bsq


ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/util/hfslink.b3.bsq


Null modem's also an option if your Apple II has a serial port. Such a port is built into the //c, IIc+ and IIGS; you will need to purchase a card such as the Super Serial Card to add such functionality to a ][, ][+ or //e.


How do I read/write files from other platforms with an Apple IIGS?

With support for both 3.5" and 5.25" drives, the Apple IIGS is the best all-round platform for transferring files between various setups. First, all of the Apple II programs and methods are available to it; see the section just above this for those.


With GS System 6.0 and 6.0.1, the GS gained the ability to read and write Macintosh 800K and 1.44MB floppies from within all programs, not just the dedicated transfer programs mentioned above for pre-GS machines. (1.44MB disks require some additional hardware, such as the Apple 1.44MB Superdrive and Superdrive controller, the Bluedisk, or SCSI Floptical drives). Use the System 6 installer (select 'Custom' install to get the list of addons) to install the HFS (Macintosh) FST on your boot disk, then reboot to load it. It may be a bit of a squeeze to fit the HFS FST and such on a 800K boot disk, and GS System 6.0/6.0.1 pretty much requires at least 1-1.25MB RAM to do stuff.


System 6.0.1's optional MS-DOS FST allowed read-only (not write) access to MS-DOS formatted disks, though disks with Windows 95's VFAT extended names will not have the long names displayed. The GS's normal 800K drives are not capable of reading MS-DOS 720K or 1.44MB disks directly; you will need to get a 1.44MB capable drive, as listed in the paragraph above.


For the ability to write to MS-DOS disks, you will need Peter Watson's (email: paw@acslink.net.au) MSDOS utilities (latest version is 2.30), which can read/write MS-DOS formatted disks, both FAT (pre-WIN95) and VFAT (WIN95) disks, including Zip disks. It's not currently usable from within the Finder or other programs, but you need a program shell such as that included with The Byteworks' Orca series, Procyon's GNO/ME, ProSEL-16's shell, or the minimal shell included in the msdostools package.


ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/apple16/utils/MSDOS.util/MSDOS.TOOL S.SHK


System 6.0 also added read-only support for Dos 3.3 and Pascal 140K disks. The Pascal FST in System 6.0.1 (and probably 6.0 also) will not recognize disks with legal punctuation in the disk name; Nathan Mates's GUPP program fixes that. See the System 6.0 mini-FAQ in this FAQ for details on where to download GUPP.


How do I read/write Apple II files from a Mac?

If you can read/write Apple II 3.5" disks, Macs can usually read/write to them, but please note the many quirks noted below. Apart from the Apple //e emulation card (see below), Macs never really had 140K 5.25" support. Using a null modem is almost always an option; see above.


With Mac System 7.5 and up, the Control Panel 'PC Exchange' lets inserted ProDOS and MS-DOS disks appear on the desktop and copy files to and from them, making the procedure rather simple. Before 7.5 (starting somewhere in Mac System 5 or 6 series), the program 'Apple File Exchange' was bundled on the system disks; it could manually (and very slowly) copy individual files, but only from within Apple File Exchange. Consult the system software disks for your Mac if you can't find these programs.


Macs downloading to Apple II disks to be read by ProDOS 8 applications is usually not an issue of directly dragging a downloaded file to the destination disk. Despite the claims of 'compatability' or 'ease of use', you're likely to need a special program to help to get a ProDOS 8 program such as BASIC.SYSTEM for Binscii, Shrinkit 3.4, Appleworks, etc., to read the files. [GS/OS can deal fine with the additions to the file, but if you're trying to get the ProDOS 8 version of binscii running, that is no help.] The usual symptom of this problem is a 'FILE TYPE MISMATCH' error on trying to read the file.


It is reported that the Mac program 'ProTYPE' can be used as a helper app to clean up the crud Macs add to files before copying them to an Apple II. There was also another program to do the same, but it disappeared recently from the net, which is apparently "normal" for Mac ftp sites. ProTYPE is currently available online (at an Apple II based site, so it hopefully won't disappear like the last rather useful program) at ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mac/ProTYPE.hqx Consult the various Mac FAQs for information on how to download and use Mac programs. See section 1.3 of this FAQ for references on finding other FAQs.


Some have said that you can apparently change the type and creator to 'TEXT' and 'pdos', before copying it to the ProDOS disk-- that'll prevent it from adding the resource fork when writing to a ProDOS disk. Others claim that won't do the trick for them.


Once you have the ability to download .bsq files and unpack them, there are some Apple II files to remove forks. [These files are packed with Binscii. If you don't have binscii because it's got a resource fork on it, you can't use these fork removers. Thus, you'll need to deal with it on the Mac end at first.]


HFS.LINK, listed above can apparently read out the data from either fork; there are also the programs ConvertForks 1.0 or ForkSplit 0.5.


Also, the Apple //e emulation card (available for a few models of Macs-- see the section on it) allows you to plug in a real Apple II 5.25 drive, and read files off of it.

How do I read/write Apple II files from an IBM PC?

IBM PC drives operate differently from Apple II drives at a hardware level; there is NO software to overcome that. The only way to bridge the gap with only a PC or an Apple II is by using (rare) addon hardware. [Technical details: PCs use MFM disk encoding; Apple IIs use GCR. The disk controller card does the decoding of the bitstream, and if it's in the wrong format, it'll mess up the bits before software can get anywhere near it. Thus, a new disk controller card is a bare minimum.]


If you have a Macintosh and access to an Apple II with 3.5" disks (such as most GSs), you can copy the files to a ProDOS disk and let the Mac read that disk. It can then copy them to a MS-DOS disk with the same software that read the ProDOS disks; see above for Mac specifics.


Null modem is probably the best method; as noted above, the Crossworks product from Sequential Systems is a good product that lets you transfer and translate certain Apple II and IBM PC file formats.


There's supposedly a program that reads 1.44MB ProDOS disks on a PC (which the PC does support), but you need the ability to write such disks from the Apple II side anyhow.


There are a few rare hardware boards that you can plug into a PC and get it to access Apple II disks; the Trackstar Plus and Quadram boards are reported to be usable in IBM PCs. (Quadram's Quadlink reportedly only supports the IBM PC XT and older; the Trackstar Plus works well in any PC with space for a very full-sized ISA board and VGA capabilities) Neither is available new anymore, and can command a premium now on the used market, as IBM PCers who sold off their Apple IIs realize the follies of their ways. :)


How do I download and unpack binscii?

[If you'd rather skip this and most of the next step, Steve Cavanaugh has a disk containing this, Shrinkit 3.4, and many other useful programs. See the Resources section (10.2) below.]


1. Binscii has many programs that can unpack it, but if you have none of them, you will need to first get 'BINSCII.TXT', the only binscii program that can be transferred without any of the others or Shrinkit. [Spectrum 2.1 and later can also unpack Binscii, so if you have a GS and want to purchase this program for general telecom use, that's an alternative.] After you have this binscii program and Shrinkit, you can unpack other binscii decoders.


2. There are non-Apple II Binscii programs (sciibin is available in source code form ready to be compiled on unix and other platforms), should you desire, but to download and unpack Shrinkit, you will almost certainly need a minimal Binscii decoder on your Apple II. Thus, it's in your best interest to download a binscii decoder.


3. Make sure you have a method of getting files to a ProDOS disk on your Apple. That may include downloading with a communications program, or copying to a disk from another computer. Please note that Apple II and IBM PC 5.25" and 3.5" disk formats are different at a hardware level, so without (rare) addon hardware on one or both sides, you cannot use an IBM PC to download stuff to an Apple II disk.


Macs running system 7 can write to ProDOS 3.5" 800K disks, but please note that the Macintosh system software has the bad habit of adding a "resource fork" to files. This makes them UNREADABLE from most Apple IIs, unless you run a special program on them from the Macintosh side. Please see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.


If you do not have ProDOS, please contact your local Apple II User Group for a copy-- they can copy it free of charge. If you do not have a modem program, but do have a modem or null modem to another computer, Steve Cavanaugh's disk that was mentioned above has some simple comm programs. Alternatively, the commercial program ProTERM 3.1 by Intrec is by far the best general Apple II communications program, so if you have at least a 128K Enhanced Apple //e, a //c, IIc+, or Apple IIGS, it is worth it to invest in this program. See the sections on dealers below for Intrec's address and phone number.


The rest of this tutorial assumes that you have read the above sections and have a basic clue as to how to navigate the internet and download files.


4. Download the file 'BINSCII.TXT', written by Todd Whitesel to your Apple II. A copy is linked in at Nathan Mates's Apple II Resources WWW pages, http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/binscii.txt Or, check the major Apple II ftp sites (see above), as well as ftp.ugcs.caltech.edu, pub/nathan/binscii.txt This is a text file. (Previous versions of it were named 'binscii.exe', which most people confused as being a MS-DOS executable, which the program most definitely is not.) It must be downloaded in text mode to your computer, or it will require some work to get it working. Check the ftp and [z]modem transfer options to make sure binary mode is off before downloading it to your Apple II. If you used a Macintosh to write the file to a ProDOS disk, be warned that it'll sometimes add a 'resource fork' to the file, rendering it unusable under ProDOS and Basic with a "FILE TYPE MISMATCH" error on trying to access it. To avoid that, see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for a Mac program to clean up after that problem.


5. See if you can unpack it. You will need to get to Applesoft Basic under ProDOS to do this. [ProDOS identifies itself as such when booting, and Basic is the ']' prompt available by running 'BASIC.SYSTEM' if you booted to the Finder]. From the prompt, change to the disk/directory with the BINSCII.TXT file in it. [A reference on Dos 3.3 and ProDOS commands is not part of this FAQ, but is available at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html] Next, verify that the file was transferred as a text file. From the prompt, type the following:

PR#3 CATALOG

If the "PR#3" command causes your computer to crash, hang, or display garbage, you do not have an 80-column card in the normal place. [This is rare, and only happens on ][+s, or stock //es.] Reboot your computer and try again without the PR#3 command. The catalog should have a line like the following (though the date and time will vary)

BINSCII.TXT TXT 12 20-AUG-96 20-AUG-96 3:14 5645

[If not in 80-column mode, that'll be wrapped to 2 lines.] Anyhow, the number we wanted was the very last number, which should be 5645. If that number is 5737, you downloaded in binary mode off an IBM PC. That's fixable. If the number is 512, you disregarded the warnings above about how the Macintosh will make an Apple II file unreadable; see the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for a Mac program to clean up after that problem. Also, note the file type in the second column, which is 'TXT' here. If it is already TXT, you can skip forward to step 5. Fixing the filetype. First, note what it currently is. If it's not 'TXT', common alternatives are 'BIN' or '$00', but almost anything is possible. The second and fourth line of the following commands, assume it's '$00', with file length 5645. Modify those two values to match what you saw in the catalog listing above:


RENAME BINSCII.TXT,BINSCII.ORIG BLOAD BINSCII.ORIG,A$2000,T$00,L5645 CREATE BINSCII.TXT,TTXT BSAVE BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L5645

This first renames the old file, loads it up, creates a file of the right length and then writes the new file. 6. Now that the file type is correct, trying to install binscii. Type the following:

EXEC BINSCII.TXT If you get a lot of ?SYNTAX ERRORs and beeps, then you most likely did not download it in ascii mode. You should try again, making sure of ascii mode, or try typing in this program. If the file size you got from the CATALOG above is not 5645, change the 5645 in line 10 to whatever it is.

10 D$=CHR$(4): L=5645 20 PRINT D$"BLOAD BINSCII.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L 30 FOR I=8192 TO 8192+L: IF PEEK(I)=10 THEN POKE I,13 40 NEXT: ONERR GOTO 60 50 PRINT D$"DELETE BINSCII2.TXT" 60 PRINT D$"CREATE BINSCII2.TXT,TTXT" 70 PRINT D$"BSAVE BINSCII2.TXT,A$2000,TTXT,L"L

Use the basic command 'RUN' (no 's) to run this program. After it is done, you should have a better chance at being able to "EXEC BINSCII2.TXT" and run it.

7. After all of this is done, you should have the 'BINSCII.SYSTEM' program on the disk/directory you EXECd binscii from. To run it, type

-BINSCII

That should start it. For now, with no files to decompress, just exit it. Congratulations, you can now unpack BINSCII files.


8. There are fancier BINSCII decoders, but this one is the only that can be easily transferred. If you have a GS, you might want to consider downloading the gsciiplus program from some of the following ftp sites: apple2.archive.umich.edu, apple2/gs/archivers/gscii.bsc apple2.caltech.edu pub/apple2/addons/nda/gscii231.shk However, to unpack this, you will need a Shrinkit program (detailed in the next section) to unpack them before you can use them. Once unpacked, you will need to copy the 'gsciiplus' NDA to the DESK.ACCS folder inside the SYSTEM folder on your boot GS/OS disk.


How do I download and unpack a Shrinkit unpacker?

Ok, getting and downloading binscii is the hard part, promise. Because binscii takes care of the worry of filetypes, end of lines and the like, you don't really need to worry about those problems again.

Which Shrinkit program you should download depends on which model of Apple II you have. These programs are listed in increasing order of features and better user interfaces, so Unshrink ][+ will run on pretty much anything that you got binscii running on, while GS-Shrinkit 1.1 will only run Apple IIGSs. Apple IIGS programs can have file formats known as 'forked files' which ProDOS 8 and regular Shrinkit cannot unpack, so if you wish to download and unpack most GS programs, GS-Shrinkit is required. (The exceptions are demos and the like distributed as a shrunk copy of a disk)

At least an Apple ][+ with 64K running ProDOS:

Your only option is Unshrink ][+ and Autounshrink, available via ftp from

apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/unshk2plus.bsc apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/autounshk.bsq

At least an Enhanced Apple //e with 128K, or //c, IIc+, IIGS:

Although you can run Unshrink ][+, Shrinkit 3.4 is far better. Get apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/shrinkit34.bsc

At least an Apple IIGS with at least 1.5MB Ram, running GS/OS System 5.0.4 or later, hard drive recommended:

GS-Shrinkit is the best choice, though if you spend most of your time in ProDOS 8, you may also want to get Shrinkit 3.4 as well as detailed above. You can get GS-Shrinkit from apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS/gshk11.bsc

Download the appropriate file(s) to your computer, and unpack them with the binscii decoder.

IMPORTANT NOTICE: The gscii plus NDA (and related unpackers, like the sscii command) can NOT correctly unpack the GS-Shrinkit 1.1 file. You _MUST_ use the binscii program that was mentioned and downloaded in stage 1, or wait for GS-Shrinkit 1.1A.

Run them Shrinkit program you just unpacked. GS-Shrinkit can be run by double-clicking on its icon in the Finder or the equivalent for other launchers. For the other programs, from the Basic ']' command in the disk/directory where you unpacked the program type 'CAT' to get a list of files. Find the filename of the program, and then '-FILENAME' to run it. (Replace 'FILENAME' with the name you saw in the list)

How do I unpack a generic .SHK or .BSQ file?

Now that you have all the files you want on your Apple II, you will first need to run the binscii program on any BINSCII'd files you downloaded, and then the Shrinkit program on the results of the un-binsciiing and/or any .SHK/.BXY files you downloaded. Once you're done with that, it's up to you to play around with the files you unpacked.

After unpacking the .BSQ files, you'll notice that .SHK files are usually produced. You do not need to keep the .BSQ files around to unpack the .SHK files; you may delete the .BSQ file(s) at your convenience. Similarly, once the .SHK file is unpacked, you can delete it if you do not expect to need to unpack it again anytime soon.

I can download .BSQ files fine, but .SHK files can't unpack. What's wrong?

If these files are coming from a standard Apple II ftp site, such as those listed in section 5.2, they should unpack fine as long as you download the files in BINARY mode at every stage, which includes from the ftp site to any intermediate machines along the way. Any single text download will usually corrupt a .SHK file enough to make it impossible to unpack. Make sure that you're downloading in binary at each and every stage. Binscii (.BSQ) files contain enough extra information so that they aren't affected by ascii downloads.

There are the occasional bad uploads to the ftp sites, but these tend to be reported quickly and dealt with. If you're having a problem with a file, and are very sure that the file is bad on the ftp server, please email the administrator to resolve the problem. Administrators should have tools to verify the integrity of any files on their sites, and deal with any problems on their end. [Administrator's email addresses are usually listed when you connect to a ftp site.]

Apple Archive Format (aaf)

Apple Archive Format was invented as a standard way to post source code to comp.sources.apple2. The C and Basic source code to aaf unpackers are available on the various FTP sites, in aaf format. Fortunately, files in aaf format can be turned back into source code with a simple text editor. Just break the file up into component files and remove the first character of each line.

ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/unix

Alternative location, including dox: http://www.openix.com/~jac


Filetypes and dealing with files of various types

A quick note about ProDOS filetypes

ProDOS keeps some information about a file's type. Files can be text (TXT), binary (BIN), executable (SYS), fonts (FON), etc. Most other file systems do not have a place to store this information, so it may get 'lost' when you upload the file. Similarly, when you download a file, you may not know the file type. Most comm programs will use some default. For NuFX archives, this is not a big deal, since you can still unpack an archive if the filetype is wrong (and the archive protects the filetype of the files inside the archive). For other files, you may need to change the file's type. One utility that comes well recommended is File Attribute Zapper II.

ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu /apple2/8bit/util/fazz.2.3.bsq

Net standard formats

There are several formats that are used widely on the Internet. The most common in FTP sites are tar (.tar) and compress (.Z). From a unix box, to undo a Tape Archive, type 'tar -xvf filename.tar', to undo a compress, type 'uncompress filename.Z'. Since tar does not make the file smaller, and compress can only compress 1 file, many times you will find files that are 'tarred an feathered'. They have a '.tar.Z' extension. Just run uncompress then un-tar the result. Other USENET groups will use uuencode (.uu) to send binaries. From a unix box, just type 'uudecode file.uu'. BinSCII is better than uuencode because 1) It stores the ProDOS filetype. 2) It splits the file into manageable 12K chunks. 3) It does a CRC checksum on each chunk.

Most of these 'Unix' standard formats are available on the Apple. See the table below.

Unix Format Types

NuFX Bin uuen- com- .ZOO Bin LZH/ Stuff ARC Other
Program SCII code press Hex LHA -It
-------- - ---- ---- ----- ----- ---- ---- ---- ------ ---- ------
Angel[1] e X X X X .ZIP
BSC c E
Balloon g X
Binscii e X
DeArc e D
GSCII+ g X X D .AAF
GShk g X D D D D
LHext x D?
Nulib c X
PMPUnzip x .ZIP
SciiBin c D
Shrinkit e X
Spectrum g X X
sscii x X X X

(Key: E = Encode only, D = Decode only, X = Encode and Decode) (Type: e = Apple //e, g = GS Only, x = GS EXE file, c = C Source code) [1] Angel is pretty Buggy, but it's worth a try.

Where to get those programs listed above

This FAQ already lists exactly where to get Binscii and GSCII+ as well as the Shrinkit programs, as well as the top level directories of several major ftp sites. To save some hunting around in the directory structures, Apple II versions of most archive programs are located at the following places:

Caltech's Apple II Archive: apple2.caltech.edu, pub/apple2/ARCHIVERS Ground: ftp://ground.isca.uiowa.edu/apple2/Mirrors/caltech/ARCHIVERS

What do the file extensions mean?

Many times, people put filename extensions (extra characters at the end of a filename) to denote what type of file it is. Please note that these are just accepted standards. If a file does not indicate it's type, you will probably have to guess. The following is a table of some common filename extensions. (Note that upper/lower case usually doesn't matter in extensions) See the previous section (on archivers) for programs that will deal with these files.

Text only files:
Extension
What is it? (What program do I use?)
.html [TEXT] ASCII text file with (ascii) formatting codes. Used to
format documents on the World Wide Web, some other places.
.htm [TEXT] .html, but the extension got trimmed to 3 characters
.txt [TEXT] An ASCII text file: usually English text.

|Archive files:
Extension
What is it? (What program do I use?)
.aaf [TEXT] Apple Archive Format for source code (aaf.unpacker)
.ACU Applelink Conversion Utility (Shrinkit)
.ARC ARC Archive (IBM ARC, GS Shrinkit, //e Angel or DeArc2E)
.CPT Compactor Pro archive (Compactor Pro on a Mac only)
.BSC [TEXT] Binscii file. (Binscii)
.BSQ [TEXT] Binscii'd NuFX file. (Binscii--then Shrinkit)
.BXY NuFX archive with a Binary II header. (Shrinkit)
.BNY BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
.BQY NuFX or Binary II with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
.BNX NuFX with BLU header. (Shrinkit)
.dsk Disk image of 140K 5.25" Apple disk.
.exe [TEXT] Executioner file. May only work in DOS 3.3. See above.
Note: .EXE generally means IBM executable (binary) program.
.gz Gzipped file. No legal Apple II software distributed in this format.
.HQX [TEXT] Mac BinHex file. (BinHex on Mac or GSCII+ on GS)
.LZH LZH Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
.LHA LHA Archive (IBM/Amiga LZH program, //e Angel)
.QQ BLU archive. (Shrinkit)
.SEA Self-extracting archive (Usually Mac, might be Shrinkit archive)
.SIT Mac StuffIt archive. (StuffIt on Mac (preferred) or GS ShrinkIt;
GS Shrinkit will only decode very old StuffIt files.
.SHK NuFX archive. (Shrinkit)
.SDK NuFX with a shrunk disk image. (Shrinkit)
.tar Unix Tape Archive (Unix 'tar -xvf', GS EXE tar)
.tgz Gzipped .tar file
.uu [TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
.uue [TEXT] Unix uuencode file [TEXT] (//e uudecode, Unix uudecode)
.ZOO IBM Zoo Archive (GS Shrinkit or IBM ZOO program, //e Angel)
.ZIP IBM Zip Archive (GS EXE Unzip, IBM PKUNZIP, Unix unzip, //e Angel)
PMPUnzip
.Z Compressed file (GS Shrinkit, Unix uncompress, //e Angel)

Common graphics file extensions:
Extension
What is it? (What program do I use?)
.AVI Windows Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
.BMP Windows and OS/2 Bitmap format.
.GIF Graphics Interchange Format: Compressed picture.
(IIGIF for //e, many programs for all other computers)
.JPG Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
.JPEG Newer graphics format. (GS viewers only)
.MOV Quicktime Movie. No Apple II program can display this.
.MPG Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
.MPEG Movie format. No Apple II program can display this.
.TIFF Graphics format (GS SHR Convert and others)

Common sound file extensions:
Extension
What is it? (What program do I use?)
.AU Sun (unix) audio format. rSounder 3 can read, AudioZap 2.0 can
read/write.
.MOD Amiga Music file. Some GS programs can read & play these.
.WAV Windows file. rSounder 3 can read 8-bit WAVs, AudioZap 2.0 for GS
can read/write, other programs can guess at reading

All 'text only files' files can usually be opened directly in any word processor, assuming they were downloaded in ascii mode. (Downloading a text file in binary mode from a non-Apple (Apple II or Macintosh) machine will probably be formatted incorrectly.)

All of these types, except the ones marked [TEXT] are BINARY files. Binary files cannot be sent over e-mail, posted to the newsgroups or FTP'd in text mode. You must FTP them in binary mode (see the section on FTP). You can download either with kermit, X-,Y- or Z-Modem.

See the next few sections for how to use transfer text, pictures, general graphics, and sound/music files.

Generally, anything labeled as 'Archive' above can and do contain multiple files, and even subdirectories. Most archivers (except for tar) also compress the files so that they take less disk space and time needed to download them.

Sometimes you will find multiple filename extensions. Simply take the filename extensions apart one at a time starting with the rightmost and you should be able to reconstruct the original file. (i.e. somefile.bsq.tar.Z would mean: uncompress, untar, unbinscii, then unShrink to get the original file!)

How do I USE stuff I have transferred to/from an IBM/Mac?

A:If you get a 'File Type Mismatch' error on when trying to read a file you transferred via a mac, then you will need to remove the resource fork from the file. See the section on file transfer from Macintosh to Apple II for where to get that program.

In general, only certain types of files can be usefully transferred back-and-forth between computers. One thing that you CANNOT do is run programs designed for another type of computer. But often you can transfer data files between similar programs (Spreadsheets) on different platforms. Here are some pointers:

How do I use text files from other computers?

One helpful hint is that all computers can read text files. Most word processors can save your file as text and import as text. But with text files, you will loose all your formatting (font type, centering and so-forth). For spreadsheets, saving as DIF will make conversion a breeze. Databases can be saved as tab-delimited records. (Note that in AppleWorks, you have to go to Print to save in these formats). Look for options like "Import" or "Export" (or "Save As" in the Mac world).

If you want to do better, there are several options available. A commercial program called MacLinkPlus can do some conversions. Some Claris programs do conversions automatically. Also, AFE can convert between some kinds of documents (For example AppleWorks Word Processor to MsWorks) if you have the right translator.

ftp://sumex-aim.stanford.edu/info-mac/util/afe-appleworks-msworks.hqx

For IBM folks, The CrossWorks program can convert between many Apple and IBM formats, and even comes with a universal null modem cable. Alternately, If you use AppleWorks a lot, you can get SuperWorks for the IBM, a clone of AppleWorks. It can import AppleWorks files directly. For graphics, SuperConvert can convert between all Apple-specific graphics formats and many Mac, Amiga and IBM specific formats. It can also save as GIF, which is a universal standard.

How do I view picture files from other platforms?

A: There are quite a few programs available, each capable of reading different file formats:

GIF, BMP, other lossless compressed formats: * IIGIF is a freeware GIF converter for any Apple II (but there is a patch needed for the Apple //c). It reads in GIF and saves as hires or double-hires.

ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iigif.bsc

ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/8bit/graphics/iic.patch.for. iigif

  • MACDOWN is also freeware and lets you do the same with MacPaint pics.
  • A ProDOS 8 version of The Graphics Exchange from Roger Wagner Publishing.

[The following software only work on an Apple IIGS]

  • Convert 3200 is one of the best programs still being sold for graphics conversion on the GS. A short list of file formats it handles is: Apple Preferred Format (GS) and PaintWorks Gold format, various 3200 color GS formats, as well as Windows-OS/2 BMP, Compuserve GIF, Amiga .IFF/ PC .LBM, Paintbrush PCX, Binary PC and several varieties of TIFF files. It can save in a number of those: Apple Preferred, Windows BMP, Paintbrush PCX, TIFF, Binary PC and Print Shop GS.

For more information, please see http://www.crl.com/~joko/convert.html.

  • The Graphics Exchange converts between many formats of graphics; the 16-bit version is also available from Roger Wagner Publishing.
  • Prizm v1.0 Converts .GIFs, Amiga IFFs, Raw Files, and some other types to Grayscale (very fast), 16 colors, 256 colors, and 3200 colors! Size of picture limited by availabe RAM (Not sure where it's available from anymore either; it was commercial.)
  • SuperConvert (commercial program, published by Seven Hills Software) loads all GS formats, plus GIFS and other non-GS specific formats and saves in all GS formats (including Finder Icon files). It has more dithering options than most of the other programs, but you may have to play with it to find the best one. It can also save in TIFF and GIF formats if you want to move Apple II graphics to other machines. Version 4.0 of this program is faster and adds support for JPEG files.
  • SHRConvert is the earlier, shareware, predecessor to SuperConvert. It does a pretty good job on the types of graphics it supports. SHRConvert used to be available for download at ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/apple2/gs/graphics/shrconvert.2.1.b sq, but it appears to be pulled off ftp sites at the author's request when SuperConvert was published.
  • Platinum Paint is a commercial program that can import all GS formats plus MacPaint. It can only save in SHR and Apple Preferred. Version 2.0 can make Animations too! Platinum Paint was sold by Scantron Quality Computers.
  • The Byte Works has a TIFF Viewer/Converter that'll read in TIFF files on the GS.
  • Animasia is reported to have some sort of .DXF (3D format used by CAD programs among others) importer; it runs only on the GS.
  • DreamGrafix supports all 3200 color picture types and also 16 color and 256 color pictures. This is a very impressive commercial paint program with its 3200 color support. EGO Systems (now since out of business) has teken over distribution of this; see the dealers section of this FAQ for their address.

Note: 'All GS formats' includes Superhires (type $C1 and $C0), hires, double-hires and PrintShop/PrintShop GS.

JPEG and other lossy formats:

As far as I know, JPEG viewers are only available for the Apple IIGS, no other Apple II machines. Seven Hills Software's commercial program SuperConvert (version 4.0 or later) can view and convert them. A number of free viewers are available at ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/graphics/viewers. Check them out if you're interested.

How do I use Icons/Fonts/etc from other platforms?

A: For reading Mac icons and such, try "Resource Spy"

ftp://apple2.archive.umich.edu/pub/apple2/gs/util/resource.spy.bsq

Note that Mac TrueType fonts will require you to purchase the 'Pointless' program by Westcode software before you can actually use them on a GS. Once you have that installed, you can copy Mac TrueType fonts off a Macintosh disk and use them without any conversion through Resource Spy. IBM Truetype fonts are in a different and unspported file format. Conversion programs exist for the Macintosh (and possibly IBMs as well), but no GS converters exist.

No Truetype readers exist for non-GS Apple IIs to my knowledge; Postscript fonts are not displayable by any Apple II programs to my knowledge. EGO Systems' LaserBeam 1.1 can download PostScript fonts to an attached Laserwriter.

How do I listen to sounds/music from other platforms?

Ian Schmidt has put together an Apple II Sound & Music FAQ which has much more detail on this subject. It is available online at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html.

For non-GS Apple IIs, there are two programs available. Michael Mahon's Sound Editor 2.2 is supposed to have very good playback. It is available from http://members.aol.com/MJMahon/sound22.shk

'IISound' is also available for regular Apple IIs; it can play back many sorts of sounds, and is reported to use the same playback routines as Mahon's program above. You can get it from: ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/Zocalo/pub/apple2/8bit/music.and.sound/iisoun dv4.2.shk.

With the expanded sound circuitry of the GS, the number of sound programs is dramatically increased. On the GS, the program 'MacSoundGrabber' can read Mac sounds out of Mac files, and save them in a GS format; you can get it from ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/macsoundgrab.shk. Alternatively, you can use the 'rMover' addon for Hypercard.

Also, programs such as rSounder 3 and AudioZAP for the GS can read/play WAV files and lots of other formats. rSounder can also save converted files (8-bit input only) as GS Resource-based sounds, suitable for the System 6 Sound control panel.

With most 8-bit mono sounds, you can simply import the file as binary and use the editor to strip off any header and Zero (0) bytes, which cause the sound to stop prematurely on playback due to the way the GS's Ensoniq chip handles samples. 16-bit formats (a number of WAVs, possibly also .AUs) will sound like garbage; only rSounder 3 and AudioZAP 2.0 (available only after paying the $20 shareware fee for AudioZAP 1.x) can deal nicely with those. ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/rsounder3.shk. ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/sound/audiozap.shk.

About the only non-Apple II music format which is readily playable is the Amiga .MOD format. Many players exist, from fairly lousy to ones doing a pretty good job. Recommended ones are MODZap, Beatbox, Shellplay/Deskplay; most of those are available from ftp://apple2.caltech.edu/pub/apple2/music/modplayers.

How do I transfer Hypercard/Hyperstudio files?

Apple bundled a 'rMover' program with Hypercard GS that facilitated the transfer of files that didn't require custom XCMDs. It can transfer in both directions. I've never used it, but the necessary files should be available with the rest of Hypercard at ftp.support.apple.com, pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Apple_II/HyperCard_IIGS . These files are unfortunately only unpackable on Macs. The .bxy files (despite the filetype extension) are not readable on Apple IIs unless you manually strip off the 512 byte header

Apparently the Mac version of HyperStudio will run GS HyperStudio stacks without conversion.


There are a lot more questions with answers not included directly in this FAQ; please see http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ for more of them.

Copyright 2007 by Tony Diaz

--- End Part 3 of 4

Content is available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike unless otherwise noted.
Powered by MediaWiki