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From: nathan@visi.com (Nathan Mates) Newsgroups: comp.sys.apple2,comp.answers,news.answers Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.EDU Followup-To: comp.sys.apple2 Subject: comp.sys.apple2 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Part 1/4

Archive-name: apple2/faq/part1 Posting-Frequency: monthly Last-modified: March 31 1998 Version: 5.1.38 URL: http://apple2.info/wiki/index.php?title=CSA2_FAQ

The next section is the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) posting of the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup. Copyright (c) 1997 by Nathan Mates (email: nathan@visi.com), all rights reserved. This document can be freely copied so long as 1) it is not sold, 2) any sections reposted elsewhere from it are credited back to this FAQ with the FAQ's copyright info and official WWW location (http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.html) left in place.

This may not be the latest version of this FAQ-- this is an archived copy. For that, drop by http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.html

This FAQ may not be sold, bundled on disks or CD-ROMs, reprinted in magazines, books, periodicals, or the like without prior consent from the maintainer, Nathan Mates. Exceptions are explicitly granted for Joe Kohn's Shareware Solutions II newsletter, and Jim Maricondo's Golden Orchard CD-ROM collection. Email me for permission otherwise.

Big thanks to Dan DeMaggio (dmag@umich.edu), the previous maintainer of the comp.sys.apple2 FAQ, and anyone who took up that mantle before him.

If you're looking for precanned text versions of these FAQs in fewer parts, drop by ftp://ftp.visi.com/users/nathan/faqs/


--- Begin part 1 of 4

 Table of Contents:
 
  Section 1: Intro 4/2/97
         1.1 What's a FAQ?
         1.2 How do I get to comp.sys.apple2 and what is it?
         1.3 What other FAQs are available for Apple IIs and the
         internet?
         
  Section 2: What is an Apple II? 9/29/96
         2.1 The Apple I
         2.2 The Apple ][, ][+ and 'europlus'
         2.3 The Apple //e
         2.4 The Apple //c and IIc+
         2.5 The Laser 128EX
         2.6 The Apple IIGS
         2.7 The Apple ][e Emulation Card
         
  Section 3: Quick New User's Guide to the Apple II
         3.1 I just got an Apple II. What should I be doing with it?
         3.2 What can you hook up to an Apple ][?
         3.3 What can you do with an Apple ][?
         3.4 What can the //e "borrow" from other computers?
         3.5 What can the GS can "borrow" from other computers?
         
  Section 4: Adding Hardware 6/13/97
         4.1 What cards should go in which slots in my Apple II?
         4.2 Can I add more memory to my Apple II?
         4.3 Can I accelerate my Apple II?
         4.4 Can I hook up a modem to my Apple II?
         4.5 Can I hook up a LaserWriter, DeskJet, etc to my Apple //e?
         4.6 Can I hook up a Laser printer, ink jet, or bubble jet
         printer to my Apple IIGS?
         4.7 Can I use Macintosh RGB or IBM VGA/SVGA Monitors with my
         ][?
         4.8 Can I use my GS Monitor on a Mac or PC?
         4.9 Can the Apple II connect to keyboards, mice, etc. for other
         platforms?
         4.10 I want a Y-adapter for my GS keyboard.
         4.11 Can I hook up a scanner up to my //e or IIGS? Can it do
         OCR?
         4.12 What about clock/calendar capabilities?
         4.13 Can a Disk ][ be used on a GS smartport?
         4.14 Can the Apple II connect to 3.5" drives or flopticals for
         other platforms?
         4.15 How about hooking up cheap IDE Hard Drives?
         4.16 Can an Apple II connect to a SCSI device?
         4.17 Tips on setting up a SCSI system
         4.18 What about internal Hard Drives?
         4.19 What about a Parallel port Zip drive?
         4.20 What's this ProFILE hard disk, and how do I use it?
         4.21 How about a replacement power supply?
         4.22 What are the pinouts for all the various Apple II
         connectors?
         
  Section 5: How do I get files off the net? 3/25/97
         5.1 What are Binscii & Shrinkit, and why do I need them?
         5.2 Where do I look on the net for Apple II files and info?
         3/2/97
         5.3 How do you download files off the net?
         5.4 How do you transfer Apple Files to/from other personal
         computers?
         5.5 How do I transfer DOS 3.3, Pascal, CP/M files?
         5.6 How do I transfer files by [null] modem?
         5.7 How do I read/write files from other platforms with an
         Apple II?
         5.8 How do I read/write files from other platforms with an
         Apple IIGS?
         5.9 How do I read/write Apple II files from a Macintosh?
         3/25/97
         5.10 How do I read/write Apple II files from an IBM PC?
         5.11 How do I download and unpack binscii?
         5.12 How do I download and unpack a Shrinkit unpacker?
         5.13 How do I unpack a generic .SHK or .BSQ file?
         5.14 I can download .BSQ files fine, but .SHK files can't
         unpack. What's wrong?
         5.15 Apple Archive Format
         
  Section 6: Filetypes and dealing with files of various types 4/12/97
         6.1 A quick note about ProDOS filetypes
         6.2 Net standard formats
         6.3 What do the file extensions mean?
         6.4 How do I USE stuff I have transferred to/from an IBM/Mac?
         6.5 How do I use text files from other computers?
         6.6 How do I view picture files from other platforms?
         6.7 How do I use Icons/Fonts/etc from other platforms?
         6.8 How do I listen to sounds/music from other platforms?
         3/8/97
         6.9 How do I transfer Hypercard/Hyperstudio files?
         
  Section 7: Some Common Questions (with answers!) 9/3/97
         7.1 Can my Apple II connect to the internet? Cool new info as
         of 8/28/97!
         7.2 I don't have an OS/Boot disk for my Apple II. Where do I
         get it from?
         7.3 How I connect my Apple II to an Appletalk (and/or
         Ethertalk) network?
         7.4 Is there any Ethernet capabilities for Apple IIs?
         7.5 What is 8 bit and 16 bit?
         7.6 How can I tell what version my computer is?
         7.7 How much RAM is in my Apple II?
         7.8 Can I use High Density disks on my double density Apple II
         drives?
         7.9 Why do partitions have a maximum size of 32MB?
         7.10 How do I convert from an Appleworks file to a text file
         without formatting codes?
         7.11 What programming languages are available for the Apple ][?
         
         7.12 Can I install DOS 3.3 stuff on my hard drive?
         7.13 Is there any form of Unix I can use on an Apple II? (new
         info 8/16/97)
         7.14 Can I generate Postscript from my Apple II?
         7.15 How do you copy from a 5.25" disk to 3.5" disk?
         7.16 My Apple II is running too fast. How do I slow it down?
         
  Section 8: Strange problems: 1/1/97
         8.1 How do I get out of Basic (that little "]" prompt and
         flashing cursor?)
         8.2 What are the problems with GSCII?
         8.3 AppleWorks won't print to my printer. What gives?
         8.4 My GS control panel keeps resetting to the defaults and/or
         forgetting the date-- the battery is dead.
         8.5 I'm getting Error XXXX or YY. What's it mean?
         8.6 Why does my Apple II lose characters when I'm using the
         modem?
         8.7 Where do I get support for AE boards now that they are
         closed?
         8.8 Is there a QWK reader for the Apple //e?
         8.9 I've got a problem. How do I troubleshoot it?
         8.10 My GS reported a problem with the Self Test. What do the
         numbers mean?
         8.11 My Apple II goes into a self test or reboots when I turn
         it on.
         8.12 My Hard Drive (or other disk) crashed! What do I do?
         8.13 My Apple II is reporting the wrong year. How do I fix
         that?
         8.14 My RamFAST board is reporting an error. What's the number
         mean?
         8.15 What does "UNABLE TO LOAD PRODOS" mean when I boot a disk?
         
  Section 9: GS System 6.0 mini-FAQ 5/25/97
         9.1 Where can I get System 6, and what fixes are there for the
         known bugs in it?
         9.2 Common Problems
         9.3 Tips & Hints
         9.4 If you have a RamFast
         9.5 If you have a Vulcan or AE High Density disk
         9.6 If you have ProSel as your program launcher
         9.7 If you have an AMR 3.5" drive
         9.8 GSCII+ & HFS Note
         9.9 Finder 6.0.1 is displaying garbage in the windows!
         9.10 Icons no longer point to apps. How do I rebuild the
         desktop database?
         9.11 How do I make a 3.5" disk that boots and runs an
         Application?
         9.12 What's the difference between 2:1 and 4:1 3.5" formatting?
         
         9.13 What do I do with icon files for the Finder, and how can I
         customize how they appear?
         
  Section 10: Resources for the Apple II 6/13/97
         10.1 Apple II Groups
         10.2 Hardware and Software Vendors
         10.3 Fun hardware add-ons
         10.4 Periodicals & Books
         10.5 Misc Resources
    _________________________________________________________________

1.1 What's a FAQ?

  6/7/97 Hi! Welcome to the comp.sys.apple2 newsgroup! As the major
  usenet group for discussing all models of the Apple I, II and ///
  family, there are lots of questions that are asked fairly often. This
  document is an attempt to collect the most common answers and provide
  everyone with answers. 'FAQ' stands for "Frequently Asked Questions"
  [i.e. with answers], and therefore, that's what this is. It would be
  ideal if everyone read this before asking a question that's answered
  in here. Referring them to this FAQ is still a good idea even if they
  missed it.
  I, Nathan Mates, took over the maintenance of this FAQ in mid July
  1996. There are still probably some sections that have fallen out of
  date and I haven't noticed or verified them yet. There are also some
  sections I'd like to rewrite as soon as I get the time. Please feel
  free to email me comments, criticisms, or reminders to post it. It
  should be posted to comp.sys.apple2 monthly on or about the first of
  the month.
  I hope it becomes a valuable resource. If not, what's it missing??
    Nathan Mates (nathan@visi.com)
    _________________________________________________________________
 1.2 How do I get to comp.sys.apple2 and what is it? 8/30/96
  Many have found that accounts with delphi.com (free web based service,
  $34/year telnet accounts with more features like file downloads) may
  be more productive than comp.sys.apple2. Moderated forums keep out all
  of the spam, and keep the discussions around quality subjects.
  comp.sys.apple2 (commonly abbreviated 'c.s.a2' or 'csa2') is a USENET
  newsgroup. Usenet is a service for transferring messages, called
  articles, in many different groups and hierarchies. USENET posts can
  originate from your local newsreader and spread to hundreds of
  thousands of machines throughout the world. You normally need some
  sort of internet connection on your machine or a connection to one to
  access usenet. The best way to get help is ask for help from a friend
  with a clue or from the support staff at wherever you get your
  internet connection.
  Usenet has its own set of FAQs and guidelines; please read the group
  news.announce.newusers for a good introduction. While the following
  list is not intended as a substitute for reading that group, this is a
  short list of guidelines culled from those lists:
   1. Be relevant. Each newsgroup was formed to contain messages for a
      set of topics, so please try to respect that. Especially, do not
      post questions to a newsgroup for binaries (programs), and vice
      versa.
   2. Be respectful of content size. If you are quoting a large article,
      please try and trim it down to only what is needed to respond to.
      Adding only a few lines to a few hundred quoted lines is annoying.
   3. Keep your lines to a manageable length. Although modern
      newsreaders can use pretty fonts, most of usenet is still carried
      and read over terminals with 80 columns on the screen. Making sure
      your lines have a return every 70 or so characters lets your posts
      be quoted neatly.
   4. Be terse with a .signature. Certain newsreaders let you attach a
      file automatically to the bottom of your posts. Anything over 4
      lines and 80 columns per line is considered excessive.
   5. Chain letters (especially those promising lots of money by sending
      a small amount to a few people, and adding your name to a list)
      are very much illegal and a quick way to get the IRS (or the local
      equivalent) to audit you. Do NOT participate in them.
   6. Although news is something internet wide, everyone's connection is
      maintained by a local administrator. Ask them first if you are
      experiencing problems.
  Back to the subject at hand, the Apple II newsgroups. There are
  several of them; here is a list of what they are and general
  guidelines for what is relevant on them.

comp.sys.apple2 - General discussion and questions

                              relating to all Apple II's

comp.sys.apple2.comm - Communications and networking related

                              issues

comp.sys.apple2.gno - Discussion of program GNO/ME for the

                              Apple IIGS (UNIX for the Apple IIGS)

comp.sys.apple2.marketplace - Buying, selling and promoting Apple II

                              related products

comp.sys.apple2.programmer - Discussion relating to any aspect of

                              programming the Apple II series

comp.sys.apple2.usergroups - Discussion relating to Apple II

                              usergroups

comp.binaries.apple2 - Public Domain/Shareware Software for all

                              Apple II's. Only programs should be posted
                              here

comp.sources.apple2 - A moderated newsgroup for the posting of

                              Apple // related source code

comp.emulators.apple2 - Discussion relating to the use of Apple II

                              emulation software/hardware on non-Apple II
                              compatible system

alt.emulators.ibmpc.apple2 - Mostly obsoleted version of

                              comp.emulators.apple2
  If your Internet provider does not carry any or all of the above
  newsgroups, but have WWW access, you may want to go to
  http://www.dejanews.com for reading and posting access to them. [Other
  access points may also exist.]
  If you only have e-mail access to the Internet, you will find the
  following addresses helpful. Make sure you have a large mailbox and
  the time to sift through lots of messages per day. Consider getting
  better connected to the Internet; http://www.thelist.com has a list of
  internet service providers worldwide. (For an alternate set of Bitnet
  addresses reachable from VMS systems, please see the obsoleted section
  of this FAQ at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.old.html)

For this: Send a message body of "help" to:


---------------------------------

Subscribe to C.S.A2 (internet) LISTSERV@vm1.nodak.edu APPLE2-L archives (internet) LISTSERV@brownvm.brown.edu Games from APPLE2-L (internet) LISTSERV@utarlvm1.uta.edu More files via E-Mail (i-net) archive-server@plains.nodak.edu Kermit file transfer program KERMSRV@cuvmb.cc.columbia.edu uk o.Apple /// files (internet) APPLE3-L@WVNVM.WVNET.EDU

  Once you are getting c.s.a2 in your mailbox, you may want to post.
  Just use the addresses listed below. People with direct access to the
  newsgroups do not need these, as they can use their news software to
  post. (These services may have been discontinued; I haven't tried
  verifying them as of 8/30/96)

Post to any newsgroup group.name@news.demon.co.uk

         OR                    group.name@news.cs.indiana.edu
         OR                    group-name@pws.bull.com
         OR                    group-name@ucbvax.berkeley.edu

Post to comp.sys.apple2 info-apple@apple.com

  Comp.binaries.apple2 is a newsgroup used for ONLY non-commercial Apple
  II software. Questions and answers should be asked in comp.sys.apple2.
  Programs posted there may be Public Domain (may be used and copied
  freely), Freeware (similar to Public Domain except that the original
  owner retains the Copyright) or Shareware (the author expects you to
  pay for using it if you use for longer than some specified period of
  time).
  Software distributed on comp.binaries.apple2 is expected to be a
  BinSCII text file containing a ShrinkIt archive. Please post a text
  description of your program and what it requires to run so people can
  tell if they want to download it or not. You may cross-post the
  description (only) to comp.sys.apple2. Remember, distribution of
  commercial software is illegal.
  Comp.sources.apple2 is a newsgroup used to distribute Apple II source
  code. The posts in comp.sources.apple2 should be in Apple Archive
  Format. Contact jac@openix.com for details; an archive of all postings
  to it is at http://www.openix.com/~jac
  Discussions concerning the software posted in these groups, or the
  methods of locating, decoding, or accessing this software, or
  questions on locating archive sites of this software, or any OTHER
  discussions are to be held in comp.sys.apple2. If someone DOES either
  intentionally or accidentally post to the binary/source groups, please
  respond only in email - do not compound the problem!
 1.3 What other FAQs are available for Apple IIs and the internet?
  The following are listed mostly alphabetically; they are composed of
  official FAQs as well as the most commonly viewed pages in my WWW FAQ
  directory:
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Applesoft Basic
      reference FAQ.
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/cdrom.html CDROMs and Apple
      IIs.
    * http://web.cs.ualberta.ca/~glyn/FAQ.csa2g comp.sys.apple2.gno FAQ
      [For the GNO/ME multitasking environment for the Apple IIGS]
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html Apple II DOS &
      Commands FAQ
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html Flopticals and Apple
      IIs.
    * http://www.hypermall.com/History What is the history of the
      various models in the Apple II series?
    * http://people.delphi.com/appleblossom/hq/hcgs.html Steve
      Cavanaugh's HyperCard GS FAQ.
    * http://www.teraform.com/~lvirden/Misc/apple2-languages.txt Apple
      II Programmmer's Catalog of Languages and Toolkits
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/pinouts.html Pinouts for many
      different Apple II connectors
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/snd.mus.html Apple IIGS sound
      and music capabilities.
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/sys6files.html Reference of
      GS/OS System 6's filestructure, with notes as to which files are
      required, etc.
    * http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/zip.html Upgrading and
      modifying Apple IIGS accelerators.
  If you are looking for other FAQs or information in general, here are
  some good starting points:
    * http://www.faqs.org/faqs Nice hypertext archive with searching
      abilities on all 'official' Usenet FAQs.
    * http://www.yahoo.com Nice collection of usenet links, organized
      categorically.
    * http://www.excite.com WWW search engine, allows customized
      searches and 'search by example'.
    * http://www.altavista.digital.com WWW search engine-- finds lots of
      stuff, though tends to find obscure stuff first.
    _________________________________________________________________
                                     

What is an Apple II? 9/29/96

 2.1 The Apple I
 
  The original Apple was not much more than a board; only 200 were made.
  With only one expansion 'slot', you had to supply your own keyboard,
  monitor and case. It sold for $666.66, but now they are worth many
  thousand dollars apiece as a collector's item.
  
 2.2 The Apple ][, ][+ and 'europlus'
 
  The computers that started the Apple II line; the Apple ][ debuted in
  April 1977, and the ][+ in 1979. They were sold with 1 Mhz 6502
  processors, a NTSC or PAL video out connector with ability to do 40x24
  text (uppercase letters and punctuation only), High (roughly 280x192,
  4 (only early ][s) or 6 fixed colors) and Low (40x48, 16 fixed colors)
  resolution color graphics, sound, plus they have 8 expansion slots to
  add peripherals. (Slot 0 was essentially reserved for RAM/ROM
  upgrades, though.) The ][ and ][+ were sold with anywhere from 4-48K
  of RAM. The first versions had Steve Wozniak's Integer Basic built
  into ROM, while later versions had the more powerful Applesoft Basic.
  Although a cassette tape interface was provided, most systems used the
  external 140K per side (manually flipping the disk to access the other
  side was extremely common) 5.25" Disk ][ drive. Common upgrades
  included adding joysticks or paddles, 80-column video cards (not the
  same as a //e 80-column card), more memory or faster processors
  (Transwarp, Zipchip, Rocketchip).
  
  The 'europlus' variant is a ][+ with a differnt logo on the front
  case, and the ability to put out the video in black and white PAL
  format. Thus, they're not easily usable in the US, Japan, Korea, and
  other countries using NTSC video. There may be a more powerful RF
  adapter that allows the europlus to display color PAL images, but I'm
  not sure on this.
  
  With 48 to 64K of ram, a ][ or ][+ can run most of the Apple II game
  classics, as well as thousands of pieces of software. Early versions
  of Appleworks (integrated Word Processor, Database, Spreadsheet) could
  be run on a ][ or ][+ with 128K and a program called PlusWorks.
  
  Recommended configuration: 16K language card (in slot 0 with a ribbon
  cable running to the RAM) which extends the system to 64K RAM, an
  80-column video card, shift key modification (allows the shift keys to
  be used), and modified character ROMs to do lower case. Early external
  hard drives, such as the Sider or Corvus can also be added. You can
  add memory in various ways, but 95% of Apple II programs that require
  128K probably will not work in a ][ or ][+, no matter how much RAM you
  have-- they tend to require a //e or better.
  
 2.3 The Apple //e
 
  Released in January 1983, the //e ('e' for enhanced) became the
  mainstay of the Apple II line, being manufactured and sold into the
  1990s. While it still had the 1Mhz 6502 when first released (mostly
  for compatability reasons with software such as games and the Disk ][
  hardware), it had uppercase and lowercase text display built in, with
  working shift and capslock keys. (Early versions didn't have the shft
  key modification that was standard on the ][+, but it was standard in
  later versions.) The motherboard was also simpler due to custom chips,
  and had 64K RAM built in, and inherited all of the graphics modes from
  the ][+. Slot 0 was replaced by an 'Auxillary' slot for an 80 column
  card with optional extra ram. (The 'Extended 80 Column card' provided
  80 display columns plus 64K more ram for a total of 128K; other
  vendors sold cards with more RAM, up to several megabytes of ram).
  
  Several versions of the //e were released; the very first motherboard
  revision (written on the motherboard in the back, by the power-on led)
  as version 820-0064-A. The first change to this was one to the
  motherboard to allow 'Double Hires' (560x192 in black and white mode;
  140x192 in 16 fixed colors mode) graphics display if an extended 80
  Column board was installed. You will need a motherboard which is not
  revision 820-0064-A to do this.
  
  The other main change, released in March 1985, and which can be done
  independently, such as to an original motherboard, was the ability to
  'Enhance' the 'enhanced' Apple II. This was done to bring the //e's
  processor and ROMs up to the level that the Apple //c which had come
  out in April 84. This enhancement was accomplished by swapping 4
  socketed chips on the motherboard: the CPU (6502 to 65C02, which
  provided more instructions, but the system speed remained the same),
  character generator (replaced a normally unused set of uppercase
  inverse characters by 32 graphical symbols useful for doing a GUI on
  the 40 or 80 column screen) ROM, and 2 ROM chips (Monitor/Applesoft).
  This upgrade could be done by a user; Apple (and later Alltech
  Electronics, FAQ section 10.2) sold the 4 chips. Most current Apple II
  software requires an Enhanced //e, and sometimes 128K too.
  
  The easiest way to check if a //e has been enhanced is to look at the
  top line of the screen when it is powered up or rebooted. If it says
  "Apple ][", it is not enhanced. The enhanced computers will say "Apple
  //e". These enhancements were built into all subsequent releases of
  the Apple II, such as the IIc+, and IIGS; the //c was "enhanced"
  before the //e. (It is technically possible to swap some but not all
  of the 4 chips to get a partially enhanced system, but that is very
  rare, and should be avoided).
  
  In 1987, a third major revision of the //e came out. This one has the
  Double Hires capable motherboard and is Enhanced, and is easily
  identifiable by the numeric keypad built into the platinum-colored
  case, which previous //es, ][+s, and ][s lacked. The motherboard also
  had some changes: one 16K ROM IC which replaced the two 8K Monitor ROM
  ICs (the CD and EF ROMs), two 64Kx4 RAM ICs replaced the eight 64Kx1
  RAM ICs, the single-wire shift-key mod, and a miniturized version of
  the Extended 80 Column Card.
  
  The above description of //e models is for the NTSC variants (video
  standard used by US, Canada, Japan), while there were also some PAL
  (Australia, Europe, etc) variants. Most of the time, you will find the
  variants in countries using the video standards, but one way to be
  sure is if the AUX slot is on the side of the motherboard near the
  power supply, you have an NTSC model, whereas if it is in line with
  slot 3, you have a PAL model. (Thanks to Steve Leahy for this one) The
  PAL revisions are: [Thanks to Dave Wilson for this]
  

week 26 1983: 820-0073-A (c) 1982 / B-607-0664 Color killer switch soldered to vacant oscillator position on PCB.

week 38 1983: 820-0073-B (c) 1982 / B-607-0264 Color killer switch near RHS of PCB. All chips socketed.

week 7 1985: 820-0073 (c) 1984 / B-607-0264

PCB marked for enhanced ROMs & 65C02 (may have old ROMs and 6502).
RAM & some TTL soldered in. Layout same as above.
  The Apple //e is still useful for three major reasons: 1) It runs
  AppleWorks, a simple to use, yet sophisticated Spreadsheet/Word
  Processor/Database. 2) There are many Apples in schools, so there is a
  ton of educational software for it. 3) It is was and will always be a
  personal computer. You can learn as little or as much as you want, and
  nothing stops you from learning about every nook and cranny in it. Ask
  any big name programmer in MS/DOS or Mac where they learned to
  program. Most of them taught themselves on a good ol' Apple //.
  
  Good programs for an Apple //e: AppleWorks (Spreadsheet/Word
  Processor/Database from Scantron Quality Computers) 3.0 (with 128K
  RAM), 4.x (with 256K RAM) or 5.x (with 256-512K RAM and drives larger
  than 140K) , Copy ][+ (file utility from Central Point), ProSEL 8
  (disk and file utilities from Glen Bredon/Charlie's Appleseeds)
  ProTerm 3.1 (communications/terminal emulator from InSync), Print Shop
  or The New Print Shop (sign/card/banner printer from Broderbund). With
  an enhanced //e, other good programs are Publish It!4 (desktop
  publishing), and Dazzle Draw (drawing program).
  
  Recommended configuration: an enhanced //e with extended 80 Column
  card (gives you 128K) or Applied Engineering's RamWorks (512K to 1MB
  RAM). RGB video out could be provided with some third party cards. A
  Hard Drive is recommended if you use a lot of different programs. You
  can also speed it up with an accelerator.
  
 2.4 The Apple //c and IIc+
 
  The //c (released April 24th, 1984) and //c+ (released September 1988)
  are 'luggable' versions of an Enhanced //e, with many built-in
  'cards'. Included are 2 serial ports, a mouse port, a disk port and
  128K of RAM. The IIc+ has a built-in accelerator that runs at either 1
  or 4Mhz (switch built into case), an internal power supply vs the
  'brick on a rope' design of the //c, and a built in 800K 3.5" drive vs
  the 140K 5.25" drive of the //c. Even though they don't have slots,
  you can still add extra memory (there's room under the keyboard) and a
  hard drive (through the disk port--a bit slow by ordinary standards,
  but usable. (Hard to find though-- was made by Chinook, but Sequential
  Systems later bought out the design). The //c and IIc+ run just about
  everything that an Enhanced //e runs. The //c and IIc+ cannot connect
  to an AppleTalk network.
  
  The //c had a number of internal revisions; the best way to check is
  to go into Basic and type "PRINT PEEK (64447)" and press return (no
  quotes). If it says 255, you have a very old //c; most of those
  motherboards had problems that prevented most //cs from getting
  reliable serial communications on faster than somewhere in the
  300-2400 baud ranges. See your dealer about getting an upgrade, which
  is apparently no longer free (tell them that the Apple authorization
  number is ODL660, and try anyhow). If it says 0, you can connect a
  3.5" drive, but you don't have the internal memory expansion connector
  for Apple cards [Some third party cards could be added, such as the AE
  Z-RAM, but those are rare and specific to this revision]. If it says
  3, you have the internal memory expansion connector-- extra RAM can be
  added with certain cards. If it says 4, you have the latest model of
  the //c. If it says 5, you have a IIc+.
  
  Various companies sell cables for the Apple //c's more oddball 5-pin
  serial ports; check out Atlaz Computer Supply (516-239-1854) or LYBEN
  Computer Systems at (800) 493-5777. The IIc+ uses the 8 pin mini DIN-8
  ports found on the GS and Macs past the Mac Plus, so cables for those
  other computers will work on them.
  
  The IIc+ normally boots at high (4Mhz) speed, but if you hold down the
  'escape' key on boot/reboot, it'll drop down to normal speed until the
  next reboot.
  
  Recommended configuration: 1 MB RAM, 3.5" drive, maybe a hard drive.
  
 2.5 The Laser 128EX
 
  While not made by Apple, this clone is a cross between the //c and an
  Enhanced //e. It is as luggable as a //c and has built-in 'cards', and
  an accelerator. It also has a slot to expand. If you want to add a
  card, you may have to disable the internal UDC (Universal Drive
  Controller, for 3.5" inch drives) or the internal 1MB memory
  expansion. Runs almost everything that the //c and //e runs, except
  for the odd program requiring an undocumented entry point in a geniune
  Apple ROM.
  
 2.6 The Apple IIGS
 
  The GS represents a giant leap in the Apple II line. It can still run
  //e software, but has a better processor (16-bit 2.5Mhz 65816; can be
  slowed to 1Mhz for compatability with older Apple II programs,
  especially games), more ram (256K built in to the first releases), a
  new super-hires graphics mode (320x200, 16 colors per line colors
  picked from 4096 colors, or 640x200, 16 dithered (4 true) colors per
  line from 4096 colors), a large set of commonly used routines called
  the toolbox in ROM (just like the Mac, though it is not identical) and
  a 32 oscillator Ensoniq sound chip. Despite having 7 main slots like a
  //e, plus a RAM card (different from the //e's AUX slot), the GS has 2
  serial ports, appletalk support, a 3.5" and 5.25" disk port, and RGB
  monitor connector built in, but using those ports required that one of
  the 7 main slots in it be mostly given up. (Accelerators and video
  boards didn't require that.) The IIGS can not only run ProDOS, but it
  can also run GS/OS, a sophisticated operating system with the better
  features from the Macintosh OS.
  
  With the new processor, video modes, and the like, IIGS software tends
  to run only on the IIGS and no previous Apple II models, but pretty
  much all software that runs on a //e or //c will run on a GS.
  
  Released in September 1986, the original GS ROM 00 (which tended to
  have the Woz signature on the front case, though that is no guarantee)
  must have one or two chips (the ROM and possibly also the Video
  graphics controller) upgraded to become a ROM 01 machine and boot/run
  current software. The first 50,000 GSs sold had a 'Woz' signature
  painted on the front of the case; this was known as the 'limited'
  edition. With so many of these cases, there's almost no added value to
  the limited edition.
  
  A later revision of the motherboard, known as the ROM 3 had a number
  of significant changes: more ROM (256K vs 128K) on the motherboard,
  more (1MB vs 256K) RAM on the motherboard, different capabilities for
  the internal slots, better support for the disabled, and a cleaner
  motherboard which can result in quieter sound support. The extra ROM
  allows more parts of the system software to be accessed from there,
  which allows a ROM 3 to boot and run GS/OS and GS/OS programs slightly
  faster than a ROM 01. (The two have identical toolbox functionality
  from the programmer's standpoint, however.)
  
  To determine which ROM version you're using, when you power it up, it
  should say "Apple IIGS" at the top of the text screen for a second or
  so, and possibly some text at the bottom, which states either ROM 01
  or ROM 3. If it does not say either, you have a ROM 00, the original
  version. You must upgrade a ROM 00 to an 01 (easy-- swap 2 chips), or
  a ROM 3 (much harder-- a motherboard swap is required, and you might
  as well purchase a ROM 3 system outright) it in order to run current
  system software. Alltech Electronics, FAQ section 10.2 is licensed to
  sell the ROM 00 to 01 upgrade chips if you want to upgrade it
  yourself.
  
  There is no such thing as a ROM 02 or 2. The engineers at Apple called
  the first revision of the GS's ROM a ROM 00, and the second 01.
  However, many people were confused by the second revision having a 1
  in the name. To get things back in sync, the third revision also has
  the numeral 3 in the name. The ROM 4 existed in several prototypes,
  but was killed off before general production.
  
  The current system software works to make a ROM 01 and a ROM 3 two
  systems appear almost identical to the software, except for the
  obvious such as the amount of RAM built in. Certain games and other
  copy protected software that used undocumented entry points on the ROM
  01 will not work on the ROM 3.
  
  Due to software compatability reasons, the slots and associated
  builtin ports are mostly exclusive, unless the board only uses the
  slot for power but not communicating with the computer (usually only
  accelerators, sound boards used for only output, and video boards).
  Slots 1 and 2 are the modem and printer ports, 3 is the 80-column
  video, 4 is the ADB mouse, 5 is the 3.5" drive support, 6 the 5.25"
  drive support, and 7 is sometimes used for Appletalk. [ROM 01 requires
  slot 7 be set to Appletalk, and one of slots 1/2 to 'Your Card', but
  the ROM 3 can have 1,2 or 7 be Appletalk.]
  
  The GS's builtin control panel (accessible by hitting control-open
  apple-escape at once or holding down the 'option' key on poweron) lets
  you configure many parts of your GS, from the system speed,
  screen/border colors, keyboard configurations, as well as what mode
  each slot is in: built-in port or whatever is in the physical slot.
  
  Recommended configuration: 1.25 MB RAM lets you boot up GS/OS and use
  most smaller programs, though it may be tight. With 2 MB, you will
  have room for Desk Accessories. Go for 4MB if you want a RAM disk
  (useful if you don't have a hard drive) or do a lot of graphics work.
  Adding a hard drive is highly recommended for speed and System 6,
  otherwise you'll be doing a lot of disk swapping. You can also speed
  it up with a TransWarp GS or Zip GS, which can speed a GS up to around
  14Mhz. [Both accelerators are currently not being sold new anymore, so
  you'll have to buy one used.]
  
 2.7 The Apple ][e Emulation Card
 
  This is a card that fits in certain Macs that lets one run Apple //e
  software. It is actually more like a //c because the card is not
  expandable like a //e. There is a place on the back of the card to
  plug in a UniDisk 5.25" and a joystick. Because the graphics are
  handled by the Mac, animation may be slow if you don't have a decent
  Mac.
  
  According to Jim Nichol ( jnichol@tso.cin.ix.net), the supported Macs
  for such a card are:

The 630 Macs _do_ have LC-style PDS slots. However, the 630's cannot use a IIe Card because you cannot turn off 32-bit addressing in a 630. The IIe Card _will_ work in all other Macs with an LC-style PDS slot, including:

Mac LC, LCII, LCIII, Quadra 605, LC475, Performa 475, Performa 550, Performa 575-8, Color Classic, LC520 (I think), and several other Performas that are the equivalents of the LC's above.


    _________________________________________________________________

Quick New User's Guide to the Apple II. Feb 1, 1998

  3.1 I just got an Apple II. What should I be doing with it?
  This is a new section and still undergoing a lot of updates. Feel free
  to suggest questions to answer here, etc
  A: The first thing to do is to make sure the hardware is running and
  functional. Even if you don't have any disks yet, you should be able
  to connect up the parts and turn the power switch on. The unit should
  beep on poweron, and start accessing a drive, if present. Most Apple
  IIs (except the GS, //c, IIc+) will attempt to boot from the drive
  forever. If it's a //e, //c, IIc+ or IIGS, try a self-test to see what
  the hardware thinks of itself-- hold down the control and solid apple
  (solid apple was renamed option on later keyboards), and then press
  and release the reset button, finally letting up on control and solid
  apple. See FAQ section 8.10 if the GS reports an error from the self
  test.
  After checking the hardware over, time to try booting some software.
  If you got boot disks with the system, use those. Otherwise, see FAQ
  section 7.2 for places to get an OS/Boot Disk from. If the system
  boots, great. If not, note any error messages, and report them online.
  If your boot disk leaves you with a blinking cursor next to a ']'
  character on screen, you've been placed into Applesoft Basic, a great
  programming environment. (And '>' is for Integer Basic, usually only
  on very old systems). If you're looking for valid commands, try the
  Apple II DOS & commands FAQ at
  http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/dos.html If you're a bit of a
  programmer and want to experiment with a fun environment, try the
  Applesoft FAQ at http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/asoft.html
  If you'd like to consider adding hardware to your Apple II, see either
  the list of Apple II vendors in FAQ Section 10.2, or this FAQ's
  section on adding hardware.
  The following information on commercial software is provided as a
  recommendation of some of the most popular titles in existence. Feel
  free to take my recommendations with a grain of salt; while I own many
  of the following programs mentioned, I have no commercial interest
  with any of the software companies listed here. Most of my Apple II
  titles (what's released is GS-only) are either freeware or shareware.
  As I note several times below, see FAQ Section 10.2 for lists of
  vendors, etc.
  While programming can be a very fun and rewarding pasttime, some would
  like to do other things. For general Word Processing, Database and
  Spreadsheet use, the program Appleworks is a great commercial program,
  for Apple IIs with at least 128K of memory. Appleworks versions 2.x or
  3.x work great on an Apple II with 128K RAM, but are probably only
  available used now. Versions 4.x and 5.x require more RAM (and 5.x
  requires a 3.5" drive or HD), have many more features, and are sold by
  Scantron Quality Computers (FAQ section 10.2).
  Apple II users wishing to telecommunicate with their Apple IIs should
  note that while there is no TCP/IP (or SLIP or PPP) for non-GS models,
  there are still plenty of ways to get online and do quite a lot.
  ProTERM 3.x is the best pre-GS telcomm program, and sold by Intrec
  Software. With that, you just need a dialup shell account with a local
  ISP-- see FAQ section 7.1 Can my Apple II connect to the internet?
  There were some Page Layout, painting, hypermedia and other minor
  desktop publishing programs for the non-GS Apple II series, but most
  were commercial and are no longer available new-- you'll have to check
  out the used software scene.
  Many old arcade classics were ported to the Apple II, and remain
  commercial copyrighted software in most cases. You can still buy many
  classics from Joe Kohn's Shareware Solutions II library. Many of the
  Apple II ftp sites have a number of games; see FAQ Section 5 for where
  and how to download.
  IIGS users can run Appleworks classic, but if you have at least 1MB
  RAM and want a GUI environment for word processing, database,
  spreadsheet, page layout, and the like, look into Appleworks GS v1.1.
  While it is fairly buggy in a few areas, it is still about the best
  GUI word processor and database for the GS. Alltech Electroncs (FAQ
  section 10.2) sells the AWGS 1.1 disks for $15 without manuals. It's a
  GUI program, so most people should be able to figure out the features
  without the manual. The Byte Works (same FAQ section) sells a more
  featureful and less buggy Spreadsheet product, while GraphicWriter III
  v2.0 from Seven Hills Software (same FAQ section) is a far superior
  Page Layout program. Anyone interested in any form of desktop
  publishing from the GS should look into Pointless, now sold by Joe
  Kohn's Shareware Solutions II-- it provides TrueType font capability
  to the GS.
  For GS Paint Programs, DreamGrafix and Platinum Paint 2.0 were the
  best choices for most users. DreamGrafix could handle 256 and 3200
  color pictures, while Platinum Paint provided a few more tools in
  other areas. Platinum Paint may still be sold by Scantron Quality
  Computers (FAQ section 10.2).
  Apple IIGSs can use the same telecommunication capabilities available
  to pre-GSs (see above), but if they have at least 1MB RAM and possibly
  a HD, there is TCP/IP (currently SLIP only; PPP is promised.) For
  those with a dialup shell account, Seven Hills Software's Spectrum is
  a good telcomm program. For info on the TCP/IP capabilities, see FAQ
  section 7.1 Can my Apple II connect to the internet?
  If into Hypermedia, look into either HyperStudio GS or HyperCard IIGS.
  HyperStudio, sold by Roger Wagner Publishing is less scriptable, but
  doesn't require as decked out GSs, and may be more intuitive and able
  to transfer files to the Mac and PC versions of that program.
  HyperCard IIGS is free (see FAQ section 5.2 for download points), and
  has many programming features builtin, but requires a GS with 1.5-2MB
  RAM and a HD.
  GS Programmers should look into The Byte Works' line of GS compilers
  and interpreters for various languages (6502/65816 Assembly, C,
  Pascal, Modula-2, Integer Basic, Logo).
  For other recommended programs, especially programs to help you deal
  with graphics, sounds & music from other platforms, see this FAQ's
  section on using files from other platforms (6.4-6.9).
  3.2 What can you hook up to an Apple ][?
  A: Hard drives, scanners, video digitizers, laser printers, video
  overlay cards, tape backups, inkjet Printers, 24 pin Dot Matrix
  printers, EPROM burners, AppleTalk networks, high density 3.5" drives,
  serial cards, parallel cards, audio digitizers, VGA monitors, FAX and
  regular modems, CP/M boards (Z-80 processor), an IBM-on-a-card, D/A
  and A/D cards, joysticks, mice, graphics tablets, touch screens,
  extended keyboards, track balls, several megabytes of RAM, real-time
  clocks, (cheap) IBM disk drives and of course, users!
  This list is by no means exhaustive: This is just what many have done.
  All of it is available NOW, and can be done on any Apple //e or GS. In
  the very near future, you may be able to hook up:
  EtherTalk or Ethernet Networks, DSP boards.
  3.3 What can you do with an Apple ][?
  A: As if the above weren't impressive, how about: Optical Character
  recognition, Desktop publishing, Integrated Spread sheet, Database and
  Word Processing, Interactive fiction adventure games, Arcade quality
  games, Educational games, Programming, Telecommunications, Inventory,
  Accounting, Money Management, and that's not even scratching the
  surface.
  3.4 What can the //e can "borrow" from other computers?
  A: GS bitmapped fonts, Mac Disks, MacPaint pictures, GIF pictures,
  just about any Mac/PC SCSI device (Hard Drives, Tape backup), Mac
  sounds with IISound (sounds are stored in the resource fork), many
  archive formats (like uudecode), any serial device (EPROM burners, FAX
  modems, 14.4 and 28.8 modems, etc.
  More info is available in the section on using transferred files from
  other systems.
  3.5 What can the GS can "borrow" from other computers?
  A: Mac bitmapped fonts, Mac Icons, Mac TrueType fonts (Windows fonts
  require converting to Mac format first; the conversion programs
  require a Mac or IBM to do that), Mac Disks, Amiga Mod songs, MacPaint
  pictures, MacWrite documents, GIF pictures, WordPerfect documents,
  just about any Mac SCSI and most ADB devices (including Hard Drives,
  Pen Mice, etc), Mac sounds, Many archive formats (.uu, .zip, .arc,
  .sit, .hqx, etc), any serial device (EPROM burners, FAX modems, 14.4
  to 33.6 modems), IDE hard drives (check out a card called "Turbo IDE".
  See http://users.ids.net/~kerwood/shh.html, or email
  jlange@tasha.muc.de for details)
  More info is available in the section on using transferred files from
  other systems.
    _________________________________________________________________

Email suggestions to nathan@visi.com. As always, let me know of any mistakes, updates, corrections, additions, etc.

There are a lot more questions with answers not included directly in this FAQ; please see http://www.visi.com/~nathan/a2/faq/csa2.html for more of them.

Copyright 1997 by Nathan Mates (Nathan Mates)

--- End Part 1 of 4

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